Multiple sclerosis: immune mechanism and update on current therapies
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) afflicting approximately 250,000 individuals in the United States. This inflammatory disease has variable clinical manifestations, ranging from a relapsing-remitting course to a chronic progressive disease. Approximately one third of MS patients have chronic progressive disease often leading to severe impairment of mobility, paralysis, poor vision, and disturbances of bladder and bowel function. Although the etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown, accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that exposure to an as-yet-unidentified infectious agent(s) triggers an aberrant immune response against self nervous tissue in genetically susceptible individuals. The tenfold higher concordance rate for MS in monozygotic twins compared to dizygotic twins, the increased incidence of MS in women compared to men (2:1), and the familial and racial occurrence of MS provide strong evidence that genetic factors influence susceptibility to MS. The major predisposing genes in MS are the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules, DR15 and DQw6, molecularly defined as HLA-DRB1, 1501-DQA1 0102-DQB1 0602. In certain ethnic groups, MS susceptibility is more...Continue Reading
T cell receptor V alpha-V beta repertoire and cytokine gene expression in active multiple sclerosis lesions
Frequency of T cells specific for myelin basic protein and myelin proteolipid protein in blood and cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis
Myelin basic protein-specific T lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis and controls: precursor frequency, fine specificity, and cytotoxicity
Open controlled therapeutic trial of intravenous immune globulin in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
T-lymphocyte reactivity to the recombinant mycobacterial 65- and 70-kDa heat shock proteins in multiple sclerosis
Expression of heat shock protein-65 by oligodendrocytes in vivo and in vitro: implications for multiple sclerosis
In vivo relationship of tumor necrosis factor-alpha to blood-brain barrier damage in patients with active multiple sclerosis
Transfer of multiple sclerosis into severe combined immunodeficiency mice by mononuclear cells from cerebrospinal fluid of the patients
Prospective serial analysis of interleukin-2 and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
The Canadian cooperative trial of cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange in progressive multiple sclerosis. The Canadian Cooperative Multiple Sclerosis Study Group.
Autoreactive T lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis determined by antigen-induced secretion of interferon-gamma
Myelin autoreactivity in multiple sclerosis: recognition of myelin basic protein in the context of HLA-DR2 products by T lymphocytes of multiple-sclerosis patients and healthy donors
A myelin basic protein peptide is recognized by cytotoxic T cells in the context of four HLA-DR types associated with multiple sclerosis
Restricted T-cell receptor V beta gene usage by myelin basic protein-specific T-cell clones in multiple sclerosis: predominant genes vary in individuals
Autoreactive T and B cells responding to myelin proteolipid protein in multiple sclerosis and controls
Preferential T-cell receptor beta-chain variable gene use in myelin basic protein-reactive T-cell clones from patients with multiple sclerosis
A randomized, controlled trial of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. The Optic Neuritis Study Group.
Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in chronic progressive, stable and steroid-treated multiple sclerosis
Association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha and disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis
Serial gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scans in patients with early, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: implications for clinical trials and natural history
Limited heterogeneity of rearranged T-cell receptor V alpha transcripts in brains of multiple sclerosis patients
Serum and CSF levels of IL-2, sIL-2R, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: expected lack of clinical utility.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, two-center, pilot trial of Cop 1 in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis
Efficacy and toxicity of cyclosporine in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The Multiple Sclerosis Study Group
Cytokine accumulations in CSF of multiple sclerosis patients: frequent detection of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor but not interleukin-6
Encephalitogenic T cell clones specific for myelin basic protein. An unusual bias in antigen recognition
A correlation between cerebrospinal fluid myelin basic protein and anti-myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis patients
Immunoblot detection of oligoclonal anti-myelin basic protein IgG antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis
Anti-endothelial cell antibodies and circulating immune complexes in the sera of patients with multiple sclerosis
Limited heterogeneity of T cell receptors from lymphocytes mediating autoimmune encephalomyelitis allows specific immune intervention.
Response of human T lymphocyte lines to myelin basic protein: association of dominant epitopes with HLA class II restriction molecules.
Universally immunogenic T cell epitopes: promiscuous binding to human MHC class II and promiscuous recognition by T cells.
Immune activation in multiple sclerosis: study of IL-2, sIL-2R, and gamma-IFN levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid
Immunomodulation of autoimmunity by linomide: inhibition of antigen presentation through down regulation of macrophage activity in the model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) mRNA level correlates with magnetic resonance imaging disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients
Dual implication of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase as major autoantigen and C3 complement-binding protein in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis
IL-6 plays a crucial role in the induction phase of myelin oligodendrocyte glucoprotein 35-55 induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Cytokine-induced enhancement of autoimmune inflammation in the brain and spinal cord: implications for multiple sclerosis
In vivo effects of recombinant-interferon-beta1b treatment on polymorphonuclear cell and monocyte functions and on T-cell-mediated antibacterial activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Interferon gamma, IL2, IL4, IL10 and TNFalpha secretions in multiple sclerosis patients treated with an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody
The influence of ethnicity on the characteristics of multiple sclerosis: a local population study between Persians and Arabs
Multiple sclerosis produces significant changes in urinary bladder innervation which are partially reflected in the lower urinary tract functional status-sensory nerve fibers role in detrusor overactivity
CSF & Lymphatic System
This feed focuses on Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) and the lymphatic system. Discover the latest papers using imaging techniques to track CSF outflow into the lymphatic system in animal models.
Autoimmune diseases occur as a result of an attack by the immune system on the body’s own tissues resulting in damage and dysfunction. There are different types of autoimmune diseases, in which there is a complex and unknown interaction between genetics and the environment. Discover the latest research on autoimmune diseases here.