Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali

Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Rene TänzlerAlexander Riedel

Abstract

The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan-Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity.

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Citations

Sep 1, 2014·Systematic Biology·Emmanuel F A ToussaintMichael Balke
Feb 16, 2016·ZooKeys·Alexander Riedel, Rene Tänzler
Jul 3, 2015·Scientific Reports·Fabien L CondamineGael J Kergoat
Jul 7, 2017·Royal Society Open Science·Emmanuel F A ToussaintAlexander Riedel
Apr 4, 2019·ZooKeys·Alexander Riedel, Raden Pramesa Narakusumo
Oct 22, 2020·PeerJ·Raden Pramesa NarakusumoJoan Pons

Related Concepts

Metazoa
DNA Sequence
Biological Evolution
Weevils
Phylogeography
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