Mummies

American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Niels Lynnerup

Abstract

Mummies are human remains with preservation of nonbony tissue. Mummification by natural influences results in so-called natural mummies, whereas mummification induced by active (human) intervention results in so-called artificial mummies, although many cultures practiced burial rites, which to some degree involved both natural and artificial mummification. Since they are so uniquely well-preserved, mummies may give many insights into mortuary practices and burial rites. Specifically, the presence of soft tissues may expand the scope of paleopathological studies. Many recent mummy studies focus on the development and application of nondestructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced three-dimensional visualizations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minimally-destructive chemical, physical, and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals, and DNA. This article discusses mummification and gives a presentation of various key mummy finds and a brief history of mummy studies. A description of the extant key technologies of natural and medical science that are applied in mummy studies is given; along with a discussion of some of the major results in terms of paleopatholog...Continue Reading

References

Feb 1, 1978·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·J MunizagaC Paredes
Apr 26, 1979·The New England Journal of Medicine·J E EricsonC C Patterson
Dec 1, 1979·Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography·D C Harwood-Nash
May 1, 1978·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·R A Barraco
Aug 1, 1978·Endoscopy·M ManialawiM Bucaille
Aug 1, 1978·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·D B Hrdy
Oct 8, 1976·Science·M R Zimmerman, R H Tedford
Nov 1, 1976·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·E Strouhal
Mar 1, 1977·American Journal of Diseases of Children·P K Lewin
Jan 11, 1992·Lancet·Gino FornaciariE L Segura
Jan 1, 1992·International Journal of Legal Medicine·S RadanovE Kirova
Feb 29, 1992·BMJ : British Medical Journal·R L MillerA M Deelder
May 1, 1992·Forensic Science International : Synergy·E AmbachW Ambach
Dec 1, 1991·The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology·K Sperry
Jun 1, 1990·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·Karl J Reinhard
Sep 1, 1990·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·R B PickeringF Yurco
Sep 9, 1989·Lancet·Gino FornaciariJ Bruno
Oct 4, 1986·Lancet·A M Field
Dec 20, 1986·Lancet·Gino Fornaciari, A Marchetti
Mar 1, 1989·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Svante Pääbo
Dec 6, 1985·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·R S el-Mallakh
Jan 1, 1988·AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology·M Marx, S H D'Auria
Mar 1, 1986·Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc·M Marx, S H D'Auria
Jan 1, 1986·AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology·D N NotmanE Gedgaudas
Jan 1, 1987·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·R WalkerJ H McKerrow
Jan 1, 1987·Anatomy and Embryology·G von HagensW Kriz
Dec 1, 1986·Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health·H King
May 1, 1986·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·H PiepenbrinkD Matthaei
Feb 1, 1985·Australasian Radiology·J A Bloomfield
Dec 1, 1985·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·F RothhammerBernardo Arriaza
Apr 18, 1985·Nature·Svante Pääbo
Jun 7, 1985·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·P K Lewin
Sep 1, 1972·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M R Zimmerman
Apr 1, 1974·Southern Medical Journal·M J AllisonD Mendoza
May 1, 1974·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M J AllisonA Pezzia
Jul 1, 1974·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M J AllisonE Gerszten
Apr 20, 1973·Science·M R Zimmerman
Apr 1, 1968·The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology·C R PatersonD B Morgan
Jul 1, 1971·Medical History·D L Weiss, V Moller-Christensen
Apr 1, 1967·Medical History·A T SANDISON
Sep 1, 1970·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·G P Rightmire
Jan 17, 1969·Science·G J Armelagos
Jan 1, 1969·Medical History·R F Macadam, A T SANDISON
May 1, 1969·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·D R BrothwellP H Gray
Jan 28, 1967·Nature·P K Lewin
Sep 1, 1984·International Journal of Dermatology·F L Speck, R G Wheeland
Sep 1, 1984·Diabetic Medicine : a Journal of the British Diabetic Association·P S SharpE M Kohner
Jun 1, 1981·Archives of Dermatology·M R Zimmerman
Jan 1, 1983·International Journal of Dermatology·J L Verbov
Nov 1, 1983·Clinical Radiology·T J Deeley
Oct 1, 1984·Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography·T Vahey, D Brown
Aug 1, 1980·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M Y El-NajjarP A Small
Jan 1, 1981·Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology·T A ChapelT A Reyman
Jul 1, 1995·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·H HjalgrimA Rosenklint
Apr 1, 1995·Neurosurgery·P C Gerszten, A J Martínez
Nov 1, 1994·FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology·G LubecS R Anderson
Sep 1, 1994·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M K Sandford, G E Kissling
Sep 21, 1994·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·U Weser, Y Kaup
Feb 20, 1993·Lancet·F ParscheW Pirsig
Mar 15, 1994·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Wilmar SaloT A Holcomb
Dec 1, 1993·Forensic Science International : Synergy·A C SpringfieldJ Ho
Feb 1, 1994·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·C D White, H P Schwarcz
Jan 1, 1994·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·R L MillerS M Maret
Jun 17, 1994·Science·O HandtW Schaffner
Jun 1, 1993·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·A C AufderheideBernardo Arriaza
Jul 1, 1993·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·Andreas G NerlichK von der Mark
Jan 1, 1995·Virchows Archiv : an International Journal of Pathology·Andreas G NerlichU Löhrs
Jul 1, 1997·The Science of the Total Environment·M YamadaK Kawakami
Nov 20, 1997·Lancet·Andreas G NerlichH G Hagedorn
May 5, 1998·Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz·A Araújo, Luiz Fernando Ferreira
Jul 22, 1998·Forensic Science International : Synergy·E JehaesR Decorte
Aug 26, 1998·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M W HessO Gaber
Sep 18, 1998·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M Pabst, F Hofer
Dec 5, 1998·Science·L DorferG Dohr
Dec 22, 1998·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M R ZimmermanR S Wade
Feb 17, 1999·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·A H ReidJ K Taubenberger
Mar 26, 1999·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·S A MackoR E Hedges
Mar 31, 1999·Forensic Science International : Synergy·M KłysB Próchnicka
May 6, 1999·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·T C O'Connell, R E Hedges
May 13, 1999·Acta Oto-laryngologica·H GaafarS Elsheikh
Aug 7, 1999·Revista Do Instituto De Medicina Tropical De São Paulo·A AraújoLuiz Fernando Ferreira
Aug 18, 1999·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·L M DeppischN L Torres
Sep 29, 1999·Lancet·L DorferT Kenner
Nov 5, 1999·American Journal of Clinical Pathology·M J AllisonE Gerszten
Jan 5, 2000·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·C J Kolman, N Tuross
Jan 7, 2000·The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology·B Weider, J H Fournier
Mar 29, 2000·Forensic Science International : Synergy·H BáezC Thomas
Sep 2, 2000·Science·A Cooper, Hendrik Poinar
Sep 12, 2000·European Journal of Human Genetics : EJHG·G De BenedettoG Barbujani
Jan 11, 2001·Neurosurgery·P C GersztenM J Allison
Feb 24, 2001·Lancet·Andreas G NerlichH G Hagedorn
Mar 29, 2001·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·S MaysG Turner-Walker
Oct 11, 2001·The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology·G M Cario, M A Carlton
Nov 28, 2001·The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences·E A Christou, L G Carlton
Feb 14, 2002·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·Frank J RühliThomas Böni
Mar 16, 2002·Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc·Heidi HoffmanRandy D Ernst
Mar 16, 2002·Science·Richard Stone
Jun 21, 2002·Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics : the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society·Roel J JansenJaap Stoker
Jun 26, 2002·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·Caroline Damsky
Nov 28, 2002·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Nami KonomiDavid Zhang
Jan 9, 2003·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Albert R ZinkAndreas G Nerlich
Jan 24, 2003·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·Helen A FletcherMark Spigelman
Feb 20, 2003·AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology·Federico CesaraniGiovanni Gandini
Apr 2, 2003·Cell Biology Education·Bruce Alberts, National Academies
Apr 12, 2003·Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz·Françoise BouchetAdauto Araújo
Apr 12, 2003·Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz·Marcelo Luiz Carvalho GonçalvesLuiz Fernando Ferreira
Apr 12, 2003·Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz·Karl J Reinhard, Jane Buikstra
Jul 2, 2003·Journal of the American College of Surgeons·Wiley W Souba
Aug 29, 2003·Journal of Synchrotron Radiation·L BertrandP Walter
Nov 1, 1955·Stain Technology·A T SANDISON
Nov 1, 1959·Stain Technology·T S LEESON
Nov 1, 2003·Science·Wolfgang MüllerJo-Anne Wartho
Nov 15, 2003·Science·Eric W Wolff, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. ewwo@bas.ac.uk
Nov 25, 2003·AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology·Carlos H PreviglianoJosefina Gonzalez Diez
Dec 9, 2003·The Breast : Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology·A NkondjockParviz Ghadirian
Jan 9, 2004·Current Biology : CB·Nigel Williams
Feb 10, 2004·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Arthur C AufderheideMarvin Allison
Feb 18, 2004·Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry·Xilei LinR Henkelmann
May 22, 2004·Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology·Eve Judith Lowenstein
Jul 17, 2004·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Carles Lalueza-FoxJaume Bertranpetit
Apr 1, 1996·Parasitology Today·A Rosalie David, G Contis
Aug 31, 2004·AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology·Federico CesaraniGiovanni Gandini
Sep 1, 2004·The Lancet Infectious Diseases·Helen D DonoghueAlbert R Zink
Dec 1, 2004·Annual Review of Genetics·Svante PääboMichael Hofreiter
Mar 10, 2005·The Journal of Experimental Biology·Sándor EvingerGábor Horváth
Apr 5, 2005·Biotechnic & Histochemistry : Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission·A-M Mekota, M Vermehren
May 5, 2005·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·Merav GurMyrna Weissman
May 7, 2005·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Eske Willerslev, Alan Cooper
May 17, 2005·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·Jesper L Boldsen
May 26, 2005·Forensic Science International : Synergy·M Thomas P GilbertAndrew S Wilson
Jun 14, 2005·Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry·Howell G M Edwards, Tasnim Munshi
Jun 17, 2005·Molecular Biology and Evolution·Helena MalmströmAnders Götherström
Jul 19, 2005·Veterinary Parasitology·Lone Nukâraq MøllerAnders Koch
Jul 26, 2005·Lancet·Timothy M CoxMartin J Warren
Aug 30, 2005·Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics·Brigitte Pakendorf, Mark Stoneking
Sep 1, 2005·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·Caroline Arcini
May 3, 2006·Gastrointestinal Endoscopy·Shanthi V Sitaraman
May 17, 2006·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·M Thomas P GilbertIan Barnes
Jul 1, 2006·Molecular Biology and Evolution·María Lourdes SampietroCarles Lalueza-Fox
Oct 10, 2006·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Simon BrookerJeffrey M Bethony
Nov 14, 2006·Computational Biology and Chemistry·Andrea SackmannJacek Blazewicz
Nov 30, 2006·Journal of Analytical Toxicology·Pascal KintzVincent Cirimele
Dec 6, 2006·Medicina clínica·Albert IsidroPedro Luis Fernández
Dec 21, 2006·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Albert R ZinkHelen D Donoghue
Dec 23, 2006·BMJ : British Medical Journal·Francesco MariElisabetta Bertol
Jan 6, 2007·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·Melanie KuchHendrik Poinar
Apr 13, 2007·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·M Thomas P GilbertJørgen Dissing
Jul 25, 2007·AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology·Stephen J KarlikRethy Chhem
Jan 1, 1991·Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA·C ChesnéA Guillouzo
Apr 1, 1986·Behavioural Processes·G Fiorito

Citations

Apr 26, 2013·Radiation and Environmental Biophysics·Johann WanekFrank J Rühli
Apr 5, 2013·Journal of Applied Genetics·Rabab KhairatCarsten M Pusch
May 4, 2012·Journal of the Royal Society, Interface·Marek JankoAlbert Zink
Nov 9, 2010·Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc·Maria Cristina MartinaGiovanni Gandini
Nov 15, 2012·Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc·Mislav CavkaBoris Brkljačić
Jul 16, 2010·Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc·Stephanie PanzerDario Piombino-Mascali
Jun 7, 2013·Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS·Frank MaixnerAndreas Keller
Feb 27, 2013·Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz·Liesbeth FríasAdauto Araújo
Jan 4, 2015·Biotechnic & Histochemistry : Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission·G Prats-MuñozI Galtés
Jan 9, 2016·Science·Frank MaixnerAlbert Zink
Aug 8, 2015·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Brett E Harding, Barbara C Wolf
Mar 30, 2011·Annals of Anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft·Chang Seok OhDong Hoon Shin
Jan 25, 2011·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Francesco IntronaCarlo P Campobasso
Jun 24, 2010·Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine·Roxana Ferllini
Feb 11, 2009·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·Philip C J Donoghue, Mark A Purnell
May 23, 2015·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Dario Piombino-MascaliStephanie Panzer
May 23, 2015·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Janet M Monge, Frank J Rühli
May 23, 2015·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Niels Lynnerup
May 23, 2015·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Christina PapageorgopoulouFrank J Rühli
May 23, 2015·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Christina SydlerFrank J Rühli
Sep 9, 2015·BioMed Research International·Christina GroveAndreas G Nerlich
Sep 9, 2015·BioMed Research International·Despina MoissidouRaffaella Bianucci
Jan 18, 2017·Microbiome·Gabriele Andrea LugliMarco Ventura
Feb 13, 2018·Medicina·Dario Piombino-MascaliM Linda Sutherland
May 23, 2015·The Anatomical Record : Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology·Niels Lynnerup
Sep 26, 2018·Radiology·Jenny RomellHans M Hertz
Oct 5, 2018·American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council·James V Schanandore
Feb 26, 2010·Die Naturwissenschaften·Jan M PestkaMichael Amling
Mar 14, 2012·Japanese Journal of Radiology·Akihito UsuiMasato Funayama
Feb 11, 2015·Skeletal Radiology·Lena OhrströmFrank J Rühli
Oct 12, 2018·BioMed Research International·Dong Hoon ShinJong Ha Hong
Jan 27, 2019·PloS One·Sergey Mikhailovich SlepchenkoDong Hoon Shin
Mar 6, 2019·Scientific Reports·Eva-Maria StüblingMartin Koch
Jan 17, 2020·Clinical Anatomy : Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists & the British Association of Clinical Anatomists·Lena ÖhrströmPatrick Eppenberger
Nov 23, 2019·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Frank MaixnerAlbert R Zink
Sep 27, 2019·Forensic Science International : Synergy·D A Finaughty, A G Morris

Related Concepts

Autopsy
Anthropological Customs
Desiccation
Impacts, Environmental
Freeze Drying
Communicable Diseases
Undertaking
Mummies
Malignant Neoplasms
Parasitic Diseases

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a rare rheumatic disease that affects children. Symptoms include joint pain, as well as fevers and skin rashes. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis

Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here.

Myocardial Stunning

Myocardial stunning is a mechanical dysfunction that persists after reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue in the absence of irreversible damage including myocardial necrosis. Here is the latest research.

Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia

Pontocerebellar hypoplasias are a group of neurodegenerative autosomal recessive disorders with prenatal onset, atrophy or hypoplasia of the cerebellum, hypoplasia of the ventral pons, microcephaly, variable neocortical atrophy and severe mental and motor impairments. Here is the latest research on pontocerebellar hypoplasia.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania is an impulse control disorder characterized by the recurrent pulling of one's hair resulting in noticeable hair loss. Here are the latest discoveries in this field.

DDX3X Syndrome

DDX3X syndrome is caused by a spontaneous mutation at conception that primarily affects females due to its location on the X-chromosome. DDX3X syndrome has been linked to intellectual disabilities, seizures, autism, low muscle tone, brain abnormalities, and slower physical developments. Here is the latest research.

Related Papers

Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Niels Lynnerup
Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Chiara Villa, Niels Lynnerup
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
R B PickeringF Yurco
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved