Retinal inflammation underlies multiple prevalent ocular and neurological diseases. Similar inflammatory processes are observed in glaucomatous optic neuropathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, posterior uveitis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In particular, human and animal studies have demonstrated the important role microglia/macrophages play in initiating and maintaining a pro-inflammatory environment in degenerative processes impacting vision. On the other hand, microglia have also been shown to have a protective role in multiple central nervous system diseases. Identifying the mechanisms underlying cell dysfunction and death is the first step toward developing novel therapeutics for these diseases impacting the central nervous system. In addition to reviewing recent key studies defining important mediators of retinal inflammation, with an emphasis on translational studies that bridge this research from bench to bedside, we also highlight a promising therapeutic class of medications, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. Finally, we propose areas where additional research is necessary to identify mechanisms that can be modulated to shift the balance from a neurotoxic to a neu...Continue Reading
Activation of a tissue-specific stress response in the aqueous outflow pathway of the eye defines the glaucoma disease phenotype
Neuroinflammation of the nigrostriatal pathway during progressive 6-OHDA dopamine degeneration in rats monitored by immunohistochemistry and PET imaging
Leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune uveitis: breakdown of blood-retinal barrier and upregulation of cellular adhesion molecules
Activated microglia in human retinitis pigmentosa, late-onset retinal degeneration, and age-related macular degeneration
The retina as a novel in vivo model for studying the role of molecules of the Bcl-2 family in relation to MPTP neurotoxicity
Glucagon-like peptide-1 decreases endogenous amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) levels and protects hippocampal neurons from death induced by Abeta and iron
Advances in the cell biology of transport via the inner blood-retinal barrier: establishment of cell lines and transport functions
Microglial inflammation in the parkinsonian substantia nigra: relationship to alpha-synuclein deposition
Progression of age-related macular degeneration: prospective assessment of C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and other cardiovascular biomarkers
Hypothetical LOC387715 is a second major susceptibility gene for age-related macular degeneration, contributing independently of complement factor H to disease risk.
Standardization of uveitis nomenclature for reporting clinical data. Results of the First International Workshop
Complement component 1Q (C1Q) upregulation in retina of murine, primate, and human glaucomatous eyes
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mediates oligodendrocyte death and delayed retinal ganglion cell loss in a mouse model of glaucoma
Peptide hormone exendin-4 stimulates subventricular zone neurogenesis in the adult rodent brain and induces recovery in an animal model of Parkinson's disease
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor stimulation reverses key deficits in distinct rodent models of Parkinson's disease.
Developmental neuronal death in hippocampus requires the microglial CD11b integrin and DAP12 immunoreceptor.
Beta-amyloid deposition and functional impairment in the retina of the APPswe/PS1DeltaE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's Disease: Microglia
Microglia are a type of glial cell found throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia have been found to be associated with Alzheimer's disease development and progression. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to Alzheimer's disease and microglia.