PMID: 8911315Nov 1, 1996Paper

Myocardial protection in normal and hypoxically stressed neonatal hearts: the superiority of hypocalcemic versus normocalcemic blood cardioplegia

The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
K S BollingH Feinberg


The ideal cardioplegic calcium (Ca+2) concentration in newborns continues to be debated. Most studies examining cardioplegia calcium concentrations have been done with a nonclinical model (i.e., isolated heart preparation), the results of which may not be clinically applicable, and they have not examined the effect of calcium concentration in a clinically relevant stressed (hypoxic) heart. Twenty neonatal piglets 5 to 18 days old were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, and their aortas were crossclamped for 70 minutes with hypocalcemic or normocalcemic multidose blood cardioplegic infusions. Group 1 (n = 5; low Ca+2, 0.2 to 0.4 mmol/L) and group 2 (n = 5; normal Ca+2, 1.0 to 1.3 mmol/L) were nonhypoxic (uninjured) hearts. Ten other piglets were first ventilated at an FiO2 of 8% to 10% (O2 saturation 65% to 70%) for 60 minutes (i.e., causing hypoxia) and then reoxygenated at an FiO2 of 100% with cardiopulmonary bypass, which produces a clinically relevant stress injury. They then underwent cardioplegic arrest (as described above) with a hypocalcemic (n = 5, group 3) or normocalcemic (n = 5, group 4) blood cardioplegic solution. Myocardial function was assessed with pressure volume loops and expressed as a percentage of control va...Continue Reading


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