Jun 29, 1976

N-(1-pyrene)maleimide: a fluorescent cross-linking reagent

Biochemistry
C W Wu, L R Yarbrough

Abstract

N-(1-Pyrene)maleimide is nonfluorescent in aqueous solution but forms strongly fluorescent adducts with sulfhydryl groups of organic compounds or proteins. The conjugation reactions of N-(1-pyrene)maleimide are relatively fast and can be monitored by the increase in fluorescence intensity of the pyrene chromophore. In cases where primary amino groups are also present in the system, we have observed a red shift of the emission spectra of the fluorescent adducts subsequent to the initial conjugation, as characterized by the disappearance of three emission peaks at 376, 396, and 416 nm, and the appearance of two new peaks at 386 and 405 nm. Model studies with N-(1-pyrene)maleimide adducts of L-cysteine and cysteamine indicate that the spectral shift is the result of an intramolecular aminolysis of the succinimido ring in the adducts. Evidence from both chemical analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the addition products supports this reaction scheme. N-(1-Pyrene)maleimide adducts of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and beta-mercaptoethanol, which have no free amino group, do not exhibit a spectral shift. Among several protein conjugates only the N-(1-pyrene)maleimide adduct of bovine serum albumin (PM-BSA) shows the spectral shift...Continue Reading

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Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Maleimides
Conjugation
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cysteamine
2-Mercaptoethanol
Organic Chemicals
ALB
Pyrene
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Glutathione Measurement

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