Mar 23, 2020

Nanotechnology Strategies for the Analysis of Circulating Tumor DNA: A Review

Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Xiaomin ChenJiatao Lou

Abstract

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) describes the fragmented DNA released from tumor cells into the blood. The ctDNA may have the same genetic changes as the primary tumor. Currently, ctDNA has become a popular biomarker for diagnosis, treatment, real-time clinical response monitoring, and prognosis, for solid tumors. Detection of ctDNA is minimally invasive, and repeat sampling can easily be performed. However, due to its low quality and short DNA fragment length, ctDNA detection still faces challenges and requires highly sensitive analytical techniques. Recently, liquid biopsies for the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor-derived exosomes have been studied, and nanotechnology techniques have rapidly developed. Compared to traditional analytical methods, these nanotechnology-based platforms have the advantages of sensitivity, multiplex detection, simplicity, miniaturization, and automation, which support their potential use in clinical practice. This review aims to discuss the recent nanotechnological strategies for ctDNA analysis and the design of reliable techniques for ctDNA detection and to identify the potential clinical applications.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Biological Markers
Circulating Neoplastic Cells
Peptide Fragments
DNA
Biomaterials
Analysis
Exosomes
Primary Neoplasm
Detection
Blood

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