Nasal Respiration Entrains Human Limbic Oscillations and Modulates Cognitive Function

The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Christina ZelanoJay A Gottfried

Abstract

The need to breathe links the mammalian olfactory system inextricably to the respiratory rhythms that draw air through the nose. In rodents and other small animals, slow oscillations of local field potential activity are driven at the rate of breathing (∼2-12 Hz) in olfactory bulb and cortex, and faster oscillatory bursts are coupled to specific phases of the respiratory cycle. These dynamic rhythms are thought to regulate cortical excitability and coordinate network interactions, helping to shape olfactory coding, memory, and behavior. However, while respiratory oscillations are a ubiquitous hallmark of olfactory system function in animals, direct evidence for such patterns is lacking in humans. In this study, we acquired intracranial EEG data from rare patients (Ps) with medically refractory epilepsy, enabling us to test the hypothesis that cortical oscillatory activity would be entrained to the human respiratory cycle, albeit at the much slower rhythm of ∼0.16-0.33 Hz. Our results reveal that natural breathing synchronizes electrical activity in human piriform (olfactory) cortex, as well as in limbic-related brain areas, including amygdala and hippocampus. Notably, oscillatory power peaked during inspiration and dissipated w...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Study
Limbic System
Patterns
Disorder of Olfactory System
Cortex Bone Disorders
Adrenal Cortex Diseases
Nasal Cavity
Electroencephalography
Structure of Olfactory Bulb
Discrimination (Process of Differentiation)

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