Need to differentiate lethal toxin-producing strains of Burkholderia gladioli, which cause severe food poisoning: description of B. gladioli pathovar cocovenenans and an emended description of B. gladioli

Microbiology and Immunology
Zhenquan JiaoTakayuki Ezaki


Burkholderia cocovenenans produces a lethal toxin (Bongkrekic acid) that leads to high fatality in food poisoning cases. However, B. cocovenenans was combined in Burkholderia gladioli in 1999. B. gladioli was originally described as a phytopathogenic bacteria that sometimes causes pneumonia in humans and that acts as an opportunistic pathogen. We thought that it was clinically dangerous to describe these two species without considering their pathogenicities. From our data of 16S rRNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, and fatty acid analysis, we could confirm that B. cocovenenans and B. gladioli should be categorized as a single species. However the species really weaved lethal toxin-producing strains with non-lethal strains. To emphasize that B. gladioli contains two different pathogens, we describe a new pathovar, B. gladioli pathovar cocovenenans, for the lethal toxin-producing strains. We provide characteristics that differentiate this lethal toxin-producing pathovar from other phytopathogenic pathovars within B. gladioli, together with an emended description of B. gladioli.


Feb 1, 1989·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·J C ChristensonD J Brenner
Aug 1, 1996·Computer Applications in the Biosciences : CABIOS·R D Page
Sep 28, 2001·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·T CoenyeJ J LiPuma
Dec 1, 1962·Journal of Bacteriology·A G Marr, J L Ingraham
Aug 5, 1921·Science·L McCulloch


Feb 14, 2013·Current Microbiology·Paulina Estrada-de Los SantosJesús Caballero-Mellado
Dec 29, 2011·The Journal of Microbiology·Paulina Estrada-de Los SantosJesús Caballero-Mellado
May 5, 2006·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Jack A Heinemann
Apr 25, 2008·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Franka LestinAndreas Podbielski
Mar 20, 2009·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Christine SegondsGérard Chabanon
Nov 18, 2010·BMC Research Notes·Nawarat SomprasongHerbert P Schweizer
May 1, 2015·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·F ZhouJ Zhang
Mar 11, 2011·FEMS Microbiology Letters·Marco AndreolliGiovanni Vallini
Sep 28, 2005·Journal of Basic Microbiology·Fernando E VegaJeffrey S Buyer

Related Concepts

Bacterial Toxins
G+C Composition
DNA, Bacterial
DNA, Ribosomal

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Computational Methods for Protein Structures

Computational methods employing machine learning algorithms are powerful tools that can be used to predict the effect of mutations on protein structure. This is important in neurodegenerative disorders, where some mutations can cause the formation of toxic protein aggregations. This feed follows the latests insights into the relationships between mutation and protein structure leading to better understanding of disease.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.