Mar 27, 2020

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Preeclampsia Exposure

Trends in Neurosciences
Serena B GumusogluHanna E Stevens

Abstract

Preeclampsia is a dangerous hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with known links to negative child health outcomes. Here, we review epidemiological and basic neuroscience work from the past several decades linking prenatal preeclampsia to altered neurodevelopment. This work demonstrates increased rates of neuropsychiatric disorders [e.g., increased autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] in children of preeclamptic pregnancies, as well as increased rates of cognitive impairments [e.g., decreased intelligence quotient (IQ), academic performance] and neurological disease (e.g., stroke and epilepsy). We also review findings from multiple animal models of preeclampsia. Manipulation of key clinical preeclampsia processes in these models (e.g., placental hypoxia, immune dysfunction, angiogenesis, oxidative stress) causes various disruptions in offspring, including ones in white matter/glia, glucocorticoid receptors, neuroimmune outcomes, cerebrovascular structure, and cognition/behavior. This animal work implicates potentially high-yield targets that may be leveraged in the future for clinical application.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Oxidative Stress
White Matter
Placenta
Glucocorticoid Receptor
Cerebrovascular System
Epilepsy
Hypertensive Disease
Hypoxia
Cerebrovascular Accident
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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