We are often faced with the need to abandon no-longer beneficial rules and adopt new ones. This process, known as cognitive set reconfiguration, is a hallmark of executive control. Although cognitive functions like reconfiguration are most often associated with dorsal prefrontal structures, recent evidence suggests that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may play an important role as well. We recorded the activity of OFC neurons while rhesus macaques performed an analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task that involved a trial and error stage. The OFC neurons demonstrated two types of switch-related activity, an early (switch-away) signal and a late (switch-to) signal, when the new task set was established. We also found a pattern of match modulation: a significant change in activity for the stimulus that matched the current perceptual rule (and would therefore be selected). These results extend our understanding of the executive functions of the OFC. They also allow us to directly compare the OFC with the complementary datasets we previously collected in the ventral (VS) and dorsal (DS) striatum. Although both effects are observed in all three areas, the timing of responses aligns the OFC more closely with DS than with VS.
Primate analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: effects of excitotoxic lesions of the prefrontal cortex in the marmoset
The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkeys and humans
Goal-related activity in V4 during free viewing visual search. Evidence for a ventral stream visual salience map
A non-human primate test of abstraction and set shifting: an automated adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
Prefrontal cell activities related to monkeys' success and failure in adapting to rule changes in a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test analog
Shifting and stopping: fronto-striatal substrates, neurochemical modulation and clinical implications
Separable learning systems in the macaque brain and the role of orbitofrontal cortex in contingent learning.
Surprise signals in anterior cingulate cortex: neuronal encoding of unsigned reward prediction errors driving adjustment in behavior.
Distributed coding of actual and hypothetical outcomes in the orbital and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Representation of comparison signals in cortical area MT during a delayed direction discrimination task.
Dissociable effects of subtotal lesions within the macaque orbital prefrontal cortex on reward-guided behavior
Neurodynamics of cognitive set shifting in monkey frontal cortex and its causal impact on behavioral flexibility
Orbitofrontal cortex uses distinct codes for different choice attributes in decisions motivated by curiosity
Ramping ensemble activity in dorsal anterior cingulate neurons during persistent commitment to a decision
Differential Contributions of Ventral and Dorsal Striatum to Early and Late Phases of Cognitive Set Reconfiguration
Reactivation of associative structure specific outcome responses during prospective evaluation in reward-based choices
Toward an integrative perspective on the neural mechanisms underlying persistent maladaptive behaviors
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.