Primaquine is the only available drug to treat Plasmodium vivax liver stages (hypnozoites). It has been used for more than five decades and is now included in an increasing number of clinical guidelines. The major concern is induced hemolysis when administered to glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficient patients. Primaquine could be used for causal prophylaxis during and after exposure or for presumptive antirelapse therapy (PART) in case of high exposure to P. vivax. A radical cure is used to avoid relapse for patients with a confirmed bloodstream infection with P. vivax or P. ovale. In France, primaquine is not approved for prevention and treatment and its use requires a specific temporary authorization.