Ketamine is a psychoactive anesthetic agent, which has been approved and utilized for various forms of anesthesia over decades. Recently, ketamine has been demonstrated to have robust and rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with treatment-resistant depression. After more than a decade of research, it is unclear what the mechanisms underlying the novel antidepressant effect are. The consensus has centered on NMDA properties of ketamine as a potential factor in the mechanism for antidepressant action. However, this may be a true but partial explanation of the effects of ketamine as a novel antidepressant. It appears that ketamine influences synaptic plasticity and may promote new synapse formation. From a neurocircuitry perspective, ketamine may exert some of its effects on the anterior cingulate.
Localization of Mu and delta opioid receptors to anterior cingulate afferents and projection neurons and input/output model of Mu regulation
Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, ketamine, in humans. Psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses
Adaptation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors following antidepressant treatment: implications for the pharmacotherapy of depression
Metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the ketamine model of psychosis using positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
Differential psychopathology and patterns of cerebral glucose utilisation produced by (S)- and (R)-ketamine in healthy volunteers using positron emission tomography (PET)
Positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose studies of metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the psilocybin model of psychosis
Attenuation of the neuropsychiatric effects of ketamine with lamotrigine: support for hyperglutamatergic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists
Electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions and transcranial magnetic stimulation as a pathophysiological probe in neuropsychiatry
Electroconvulsive shock decreases binding to 5-HT2 receptors in nonhuman primates: an in vivo positron emission tomography study with [18F]setoperone
Reduced anterior cingulate glutamate in pediatric major depression: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study
Current trends in the assessment and somatic treatment of resistant/refractory major depression: an overview
Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, depression, and antidepressant medications: meta-analyses and implications.
Increased anterior cingulate cortical activity in response to fearful faces: a neurophysiological biomarker that predicts rapid antidepressant response to ketamine
Meta-analysis of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in major depressive disorder: effects of gender and ethnicity
Family history of alcohol dependence and initial antidepressant response to an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist
Reduced activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during attention and cognitive control functions in medication-naïve adolescents with depression compared to controls.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and initial antidepressant response to an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist.
Effects of pulse width and electrode placement on the efficacy and cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy.
Anterior cingulate desynchronization and functional connectivity with the amygdala during a working memory task predict rapid antidepressant response to ketamine.
A randomized add-on trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant bipolar depression.
Involvement of AMPA receptor in both the rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in animal models of depression
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met allele impairs basal and ketamine-stimulated synaptogenesis in prefrontal cortex.
Repeated stress causes cognitive impairment by suppressing glutamate receptor expression and function in prefrontal cortex.
Concomitant BDNF and sleep slow wave changes indicate ketamine-induced plasticity in major depressive disorder.
Rapid and longer-term antidepressant effects of repeated ketamine infusions in treatment-resistant major depression.
Family history of alcohol dependence and antidepressant response to an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in bipolar depression.
Single ketamine infusion in bipolar depression resistant to antidepressants: are neurotrophins involved?
Traxoprodil augments the antidepressant-like activity of agomelatine but not of mianserin or tianeptine in the forced swim test in mice
Protein kinase Mζ in medial prefrontal cortex mediates depressive-like behavior and antidepressant response
Positive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Modulation by Rapastinel Promotes Rapid and Sustained Antidepressant-Like Effects
Dopamine and serotonin contribute to Paecilomyces hepiali against chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive behavior in Sprague Dawley rats
Neonatal exposure of ketamine inhibited the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation without impairing the spatial memory of adult rats
Antidepressants with different mechanisms of action show different chronopharmacological profiles in the tail suspension test in mice
Assessment of Ketamine and Its Enantiomers in an Organophosphate-Based Rat Model for Features of Gulf War Illness
Ketamine induced converged synchronous gamma oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia network of nonhuman primates
Effects of Monoamines and Antidepressants on Astrocyte Physiology: Implications for Monoamine Hypothesis of Depression
Perturbation of Ephrin Receptor Signaling and Glutamatergic Transmission in the Hypothalamus in Depression Using Proteomics Integrated With Metabolomics
Targeting Intracellular Calcium Stores Alleviates Neurological Morbidities in a DFP-Based Rat Model of Gulf War Illness
Methionine mediates resilience to chronic social defeat stress by epigenetic regulation of NMDA receptor subunit expression
Rapid Improvement of Treatment-Resistant Major Depression During the Administration of Low-Dose Oxycodone.
Changes in concentrations of NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B, Arc and syntaxin-1 in dorsal hippocampus Schaffer collateral synapses in a rat learned helplessness model of depression.
Astrocyte GluN2C NMDA receptors control basal synaptic strengths of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the stratum radiatum.
Brain developing: Influences & Outcomes
This feed focuses on influences that affect the developing brain including genetics, fetal development, prenatal care, and gene-environment interactions. Here is the latest research in this field.