Sep 4, 2010

No haploinsufficiency but loss of heterozygosity for EXT in multiple osteochondromas

The American Journal of Pathology
Christianne M A ReijndersJudith V M G Bovée

Abstract

Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in EXT1 and/or EXT2. In contrast, solitary osteochondroma (SO) is nonhereditary. Products of the EXT gene are involved in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. In this study, we investigated whether osteochondromas arise via either loss of heterozygosity (2 hits) or haploinsufficiency. An in vitro three-dimensional chondrogenic pellet model was used to compare heterozygous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs EXT(wt/-)) of MO patients with normal MSCs and the corresponding tumor specimens (presumed EXT(-/-)). We demonstrated a second hit in EXT in five of eight osteochondromas. HS chain length and structure, in vitro chondrogenesis, and EXT expression levels were identical in both EXT(wt/-) and normal MSCs. Immunohistochemistry for HS, HS proteoglycans, and HS-dependent signaling pathways (eg, TGF-β/BMP, Wnt, and PTHLH) also showed no differences. The cartilaginous cap of osteochondroma contained a mixture of HS-positive and HS-negative cells. Because a heterozygous EXT mutation does not affect chondrogenesis, EXT, HS, or downstream signaling pathways in MSCs, our results refute the haploinsufficiency theory. We found a second ...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Tumor Cells, Uncertain Whether Benign or Malignant
Monoclonal antibodies, antineoplastic
Flow Cytometry
Biochemical Pathway
Transforming Growth Factor beta
GLI2 protein, human
Germ-Line Mutation
GLI1 wt Allele
Immunohistochemistry
SOX9 gene

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.