NOD-like receptors: major players (and targets) in the interface between innate immunity and cancer.

Bioscience Reports
Fernando J VellosoRicardo G Correa


Innate immunity comprises several inflammation-related modulatory pathways which receive signals from an array of membrane-bound and cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The NLRs (NACHT (NAIP (neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein), C2TA (MHC class 2 transcription activator), HET-E (incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina) and TP1 (telomerase-associated protein) and Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) domain containing proteins) relate to a large family of cytosolic innate receptors, involved in detection of intracellular pathogens and endogenous byproducts of tissue injury. These receptors may recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and/or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), activating host responses against pathogen infection and cellular stress. NLR-driven downstream signals trigger a number of signaling circuitries, which may either initiate the formation of inflammasomes and/or activate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), stress kinases, interferon response factors (IRFs), inflammatory caspases and autophagy. Disruption of those signals may lead to a number of pro-inflammatory conditions, eventually promoting the onset of human malignancies. In this review, we describe the structures and f...Continue Reading


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