The increasing use of gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has led to the recognition by histopathologists of non-conventional (or special-type) dysplasias of the gastrointestinal tract. These lesions can be recognised in association with prevalent underlying gastrointestinal conditions, such as Barrett oesophagus, chronic atrophic gastritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The diagnosis of these special types can be challenging, and their biological behaviours are not fully characterised. The aim of this review is to provide a global view of non-conventional dysplastic lesions observed in the various segments of the tubular gastrointestinal tract and describe their salient features. Furthermore, as the clinical implications of these various subtypes have not been broadly tested in practice and are not represented in most management guidelines, we offer guidance on the best management practices for these lesions.
Morphological range of hyperplastic polyps and carcinomas arising in hyperplastic polyps of the stomach
Differential p53 protein expression in stomach adenomas of gastric and intestinal phenotypes: possible sequences of p53 alteration in stomach carcinogenesis
Dysplasia and dysregulation of proliferation in foveolar and surface epithelia of fundic gland polyps from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis
Villous, hypermucinous mucosa in long standing ulcerative colitis shows high frequency of K-ras mutations
'Pyloric gland-type adenoma' arising in heterotopic gastric mucosa of the duodenum, with dysplastic progression of the gastric type
Fundic gland polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis: neoplasms with frequent somatic adenomatous polyposis coli gene alterations
Gastric adenomas: intestinal-type and gastric-type adenomas differ in the risk of adenocarcinoma and presence of background mucosal pathology
Sporadic fundic gland polyps with epithelial dysplasia : evidence for preferential targeting for mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene
Pyloric gland adenoma arising in Barrett's esophagus with mucin immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic evaluation
ASGE guideline: the role of endoscopy in the surveillance of premalignant conditions of the upper GI tract
Crypt dysplasia with surface maturation: a clinical, pathologic, and molecular study of a Barrett's esophagus cohort
Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features
Type or extension of intestinal metaplasia and immature/atypical "indefinite-for-dysplasia" lesions as predictors of gastric neoplasia
Serrated neoplasias and de novo carcinomas in ulcerative colitis: a histological study in colectomy specimens
Adenomatous and foveolar gastric dysplasia: distinct patterns of mucin expression and background intestinal metaplasia
DNA ploidy abnormalities in basal and superficial regions of the crypts in Barrett's esophagus and associated neoplastic lesions
Cardiac rather than intestinal-type background in endoscopic resection specimens of minute Barrett adenocarcinoma
Nonadenomatous dysplasia in barrett esophagus: a clinical, pathologic, and DNA content flow cytometric study.
Immunohistochemical analysis of pyloric gland adenomas using a series of Mucin 2, Mucin 5AC, Mucin 6, CD10, Ki67 and p53
Gastric pit dysplasia in adjacent gastric mucosa in 414 gastric cancers: prevalence and characteristics
Gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS): a new autosomal dominant syndrome
Gastric adenocarcinoma with chief cell differentiation: a proposal for reclassification as oxyntic gland polyp/adenoma
Gastric intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia: a morphological and biologic evaluation in a large Chinese cohort
Alteration in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in gastric neoplasias of fundic gland (chief cell predominant) type
Upper GI tract lesions in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): enrichment of pyloric gland adenomas and other gastric and duodenal neoplasms
Morphology and natural history of familial adenomatous polyposis-associated dysplastic fundic gland polyps
Non-conventional dysplastic subtypes in inflammatory bowel disease: a review of their diagnostic characteristics and potential clinical implications.
Hypermucinous, Goblet Cell Deficient, and Crypt Cell Dysplasias in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are Often Associated with Flat/Invisible Endoscopic Appearance and Advanced Neoplasia on Follow-Up.
Barrett’s esophagus if a serious complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease during which the normal esophageal lining changes to tissue that resembles intestinal lining. Here is the latest research.
Atrophic Gastritis is a process where gastric glandular cells are lost and replaced with firbous tissues, as a result of chronic inflammation. Learn more about Atrophic Gastritis here.