We combined two ultrasound techniques to develop a safe, non-invasive, transcutaneous method of observing the circulation in the umbilical arteries and vein in the fetus. The umbilical cord can be located by standard echo ultrasound procedures, and this information can be used to direct a Doppler ultrasound beam on to the vessels in the cord. The signals can be heard through audio headphones or recorded on a tape recorded and spectrum-analysed. The method was successful in each of 20 patients examined, whose pregnancies ranged from 12 to 40 weeks' gestational age, and was suitable for outpatient use. It should be useful in assessing such conditions as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation.
Umbilical artery Doppler flow velocity waveform: the outcome of pregnancies with absent end diastolic flow
Umbilical and uteroplacental blood flow velocity waveforms in pregnancies with fetal growth retardation
Umbilical artery waveform analysis and biophysical profile. A comparison of two methods to identify compromised fetuses
Uterine and umbilical artery blood flow velocity waveforms and their validity in the prediction of fetal compromise
Correlation between umbilical artery resistance index, 6 ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha and thromboxane B2 in the fetoplacental compartment in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension
An automated intelligent diagnostic system for the interpretation of umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry
Doppler evaluation of the effects of propofol, etomidate and alphaxalone on fetoplacental circulation hemodynamics in the pregnant ewe
Arterial Doppler ultrasound in 115 second- and third-trimester fetuses with congenital heart disease
Measurement of venous blood flow in the human fetus: a dream comes true, but now for some standardization
The effects of regional anaesthesia for caesarean section on maternal and fetal blood flow velocities measured by Doppler ultrasound
The value of Doppler study of the umbilical artery in predicting perinatal outcome in pre-eclamptic patients
Absent or reversed end diastolic flow velocity in the umbilical artery and necrotising enterocolitis
Validity of umbilical artery blood velocimetry in the prediction of intrauterine growth retardation and fetal compromise
Clinical application of pulsatility index of flow volume to detect the hemodynamic changes in IUGR fetus
The application of uterine and umbilical artery velocimetry to the antenatal supervision of pregnancies complicated by maternal sickle hemoglobinopathies
The influence of spontaneous accelerations of fetal heart rate on umbilical artery velocity waveforms
Fetal hypertension induced by norepinephrine infusion and umbilical artery flow velocity waveforms in fetal sheep
Ductus venosus Doppler and postnatal outcomes in fetuses with absent or reversed end-diastolic flow in the umbilical arteries
Hemodynamic changes in the fetal arteries during the second half of pregnancy assessed by Doppler velocimetry
Is there a relationship between estimated fetal weight and umbilical artery Doppler impedance indices?
An experimental model to study resistance index and systolic/diastolic ratio of uterine arteries in adverse canine pregnancy outcome
Uterine and umbilical artery Doppler are comparable in predicting perinatal outcome of growth-restricted fetuses
Duplex Doppler sonography of the umbilical arteries: predictive value in IUGR and correlation with birth weight
Site-dependent effects of increases in placental vascular resistance on the umbilical arterial velocity waveform in fetal sheep
Blood flow in the fetal descending aorta; intrinsic factors affecting fetal blood flow, i.e. fetal breathing movements and cardiac arrhythmia
A longitudinal evaluation of the efficacy of umbilical Doppler velocimetry in the diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation
The umbilical artery blood flow velocity waveform in relation to fetal breathing movements, fetal heart rate and fetal behavioural states in normal pregnancy at 37 to 39 weeks
Umbilical artery and uteroplacental blood flow velocity waveforms in normal pregnancy--a cross-sectional study
Longitudinal reference intervals for Doppler velocimetric parameters of the fetal renal artery correlated with amniotic fluid index among low-risk pregnancies
Doppler ultrasonography in obstetrics: from the diagnosis of fetal anemia to the treatment of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses
Screening for fetal well-being in a high-risk pregnant population comparing the nonstress test with umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry: a randomized controlled clinical trial
The Role of Uterine and Umbilical Arterial Doppler in High-risk Pregnancy: A Prospective Observational Study from India
Doppler application in the delivery timing of the preterm growth-restricted fetus: another step in the right direction
Quantitative assessment of growth and function of the cardiac chambers in the normal human fetus: a prospective longitudinal echocardiographic study
Normative values of Doppler velocimetry of five major fetal arteries as determined by color power angiography
Evidence-based approach to umbilical artery Doppler fetal surveillance in high-risk pregnancies: an update
Doppler fetal circulation in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia or delivery of a small for gestational age baby: 2. Longitudinal analysis
Umbilical and uterine artery flow velocity waveforms in pregnancy associated with major fetal abnormality
Doppler assessment of umbilical artery blood flow for the prediction of outcome in fetal cardiac abnormality
A comparison of fetal heart rate monitoring and umbilical artery waveforms in the recognition of fetal compromise
Doppler assessment of the cardiac and uteroplacental circulations in normal and complicated pregnancies
Fetal Doppler Assessment in Neonatal Care: Analysis of Fetal Doppler Abnormalities and Neonatal Outcomes
Feed intolerance in preterm neonates with antenatal reverse end diastolic flow (REDF) in umbilical artery: a retrospective cohort study.
The effect of nifedipine and dipyridamole on the Doppler blood flow waveforms of umbilical and uterine arteries in hypertensive pregnant women
Gestation-Specific Changes in the Anatomy and Physiology of Healthy Pregnant Women: An Extended Repository of Model Parameters for Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Pregnancy
Doppler assessment of renal blood flow velocity waveforms in the anemic fetus before and after intravascular transfusion for severe red cell alloimmunization
Assessment of blood flow velocity waveforms of the pulmonary circulation by multigate spectral Doppler scanning and traditional pulsed Doppler ultrasonography
International gestational age-specific centiles for umbilical artery Doppler indices: a longitudinal prospective cohort study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.
Understanding the uterine artery Doppler waveform and its relationship to spiral artery remodelling.
Abstracts of the 11th World Congress on Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 23-28 October 2001. Melbourne, Australia
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Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells
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