May 5, 2016

Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae as a cause of chronic adenoiditis

IDCases
Cheshil DixitLarry S McDaniel

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen. To cause disease, it must first colonize the nasopharynx. The widespread use of pneumococcal-conjugate vaccines which target the capsular polysaccharide has led to decreased nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine serotypes, but a concomitant increase in carriage of non-vaccine serotypes and nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp). Some NESp express pneumococcal surface protein K (PspK), a virulence factor shown to contribute to nasopharyngeal colonization. We present the case of a child with chronic adenoiditis caused by a PspK(+) NESp. We tested the pneumococcal isolate, designated C144.66, for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of the pspK gene and the expression of PspK. Sequence typing and genome sequencing were performed. C144.66 was found to be resistant to erythromycin and displayed intermediate resistance to penicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. C144.66 has the pspK gene in place of the capsule locus. Additionally, PspK expression was confirmed by flow cytometry. NESp are a growing concern as an emerging human pathogen, as current pneumococcal vaccines do not confer immunity against them. An inability to vaccinate against NESp may result in increased carriage...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Nasopharyngeal Diseases
Flow Cytometry
Gnas protein, mouse
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Erythromycin
GNAS gene
Genes
Microbial Anatomical Capsule Structure
Nasopharynx
Pathogenic Organism

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