PMID: 6209625Nov 1, 1984Paper

Noninvasive detection of insulation break

Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE
B FerekS Tonković


The electric current leak through an unsealed connector or insulation break can be a source of problems in cardiac pacing. This study describes a method of leak detection. The underdrive inhibition test--chest wall stimulation with external stimulator (ES)--was used for this purpose. Three cutaneous electrodes (CE) were applied: the first one above the indifferent electrode, the second one above the suspected leak location, and the third one above the active electrode. Two inhibition thresholds (IT) were measured: the first one connecting ES on first CE and second CE, and the second one connecting ES on first CE and third CE. The inhibition threshold is the value of ES output charge at which the inhibition of implanted pacemaker occurs. The relation between two ITs, not the absolute value, is significant for leak estimation. The former should be at least five times higher than the latter, if there is no current leak. During the two years of follow-up of 541 patients, 272 measurements were performed. In 52 cases the connector leak was found-both ITs were approximately equal. Twenty-seven cases were confirmed by surgery for EOL pacemaker replacement; the intrusion of body fluid was evident. Five operations were indicated because ...Continue Reading


Nov 1, 1969·British Heart Journal·G D GreenA C Kenmure
Apr 1, 1971·Cardiovascular Research·D SmithG Sloman
Sep 1, 1981·Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE·P J RadcliffeD E Ward


Feb 1, 1995·Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE·B M van GelderM I El Gamal
Aug 1, 1989·Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE·B BreyerI Cikes
Nov 1, 1992·Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE·G F TyersJ Clark

Related Concepts

Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
Electric Stimulation Technique
Implantable Stimulation Electrodes
Electromagnetic Fields
Misuse, Equipment
Artificial Cardiac Pacemaker
Repeat Surgery
Electrical Phenomena

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection

Lipidomics can be used to examine the lipid species involved with pathogenic conditions, such as viral associated inflammation. Discovered the latest research on Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Torsion Dystonia

Torsion dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by loss of control of voluntary movements appearing as sustained muscle contractions and/or abnormal postures. Here is the latest research.

Archaeal RNA Polymerase

Archaeal RNA polymerases are most similar to eukaryotic RNA polymerase II but require the support of only two archaeal general transcription factors, TBP (TATA-box binding protein) and TFB (archaeal homologue of the eukaryotic general transcription factor TFIIB) to initiate basal transcription. Here is the latest research on archaeal RNA polymerases.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Related Papers

Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE
M J SandlerM N Kotler
The Journal of Trauma
Wei-Liang ChenYu-Tzu Tsao
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE
Ravindu Hasmukh Kamdar, Richard John Schilling
Europace : European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology
Katya Reis SantosJosé Aniceto Silva
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved