Normal glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus: what is in between?

Diabetes Care
Graziano Di CianniStefano Del Prato

Abstract

The aim of this article was to define the metabolic phenotype of pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to test whether OAV could be considered metabolically comparable to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or a specific entity between GDM and normal pregnancy. After 100-g 3-h OGTTs, 4,053 pregnant women were classified as having GDM, OAV, or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Those with OAV were subdivided into three subgroups: fasting hyperglycemia (one abnormal value at fasting during an OGTT), 1-h hyperglycemia (one abnormal value at 1 h during an OGTT [1h-OAV]), or 2- or 3-h hyperglycemia (one abnormal value at 2 or 3 h during an OGTT). As derived from the OGTT, we measured insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [ISI] Matsuda) and insulin secretion (homeostasis model assessment for the estimation of beta-cell secretion [HOMA-B], first- and second-phase insulin secretion). The product of the first-phase index and the ISI was calculated to obtain the insulin secretion-sensitivity index (ISSI). GDM was diagnosed in 17.9% and OAV in 18.7% of pregnant women; women with GDM and OAV were older and had higher BMI and serum triglyceride levels than those with NGT (all P <...Continue Reading

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