Novel pharmacological approaches to the treatment of type 2 diabetes

Pharmacological Reviews
E J Verspohl

Abstract

The huge increase in type 2 diabetes is a burden worldwide. Many marketed compounds do not address relevant aspects of the disease; they may already compensate for defects in insulin secretion and insulin action, but loss of secreting cells (β-cell destruction), hyperglucagonemia, gastric emptying, enzyme activation/inhibition in insulin-sensitive cells, substitution or antagonizing of physiological hormones and pathways, finally leading to secondary complications of diabetes, are not sufficiently addressed. In addition, side effects for established therapies such as hypoglycemias and weight gain have to be diminished. At present, nearly 1000 compounds have been described, and approximately 180 of these are going to be developed (already in clinical studies), some of them directly influencing enzyme activity, influencing pathophysiological pathways, and some using G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition, immunological approaches and antisense strategies are going to be developed. Many compounds are derived from physiological compounds (hormones) aiming at improving their kinetics and selectivity, and others are chemical compounds that were obtained by screening for a newly identified target in the physiological or pathophysiol...Continue Reading

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Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Trichotillomania

Trichotillomania is an impulse control disorder characterized by the recurrent pulling of one's hair resulting in noticeable hair loss. Here are the latest discoveries in this field.

DDX3X Syndrome

DDX3X syndrome is caused by a spontaneous mutation at conception that primarily affects females due to its location on the X-chromosome. DDX3X syndrome has been linked to intellectual disabilities, seizures, autism, low muscle tone, brain abnormalities, and slower physical developments. Here is the latest research.