Jan 13, 2006

Nuclear and mitochondrial compartmentation of oxidative stress and redox signaling

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Jason M HansenDean P Jones


New methods to measure thiol oxidation show that redox compartmentation functions as a mechanism for specificity in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Redox Western analysis and redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins provide means to quantify thiol/disulfide redox changes in specific subcellular compartments. Analyses using these techniques show that the relative redox states from most reducing to most oxidizing are mitochondria > nuclei > cytoplasm > endoplasmic reticulum > extracellular space. Mitochondrial thiols are an important target of oxidant-induced apoptosis and necrosis and are especially vulnerable to oxidation because of the relatively alkaline pH. Maintenance of a relatively reduced nuclear redox state is critical for transcription factor binding in transcriptional activation in response to oxidative stress. The new methods are applicable to a broad range of experimental systems and their use will provide improved understanding of the pharmacologic and toxicologic actions of drugs and toxicants.

Mentioned in this Paper

Metabolic Process, Cellular
Establishment and Maintenance of Localization
JUN gene
JUND gene
Biochemical Pathway
Hydrogen Peroxide
Signaling Cascade
Ethanol Measurement

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Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis