The size of the nucleus varies among different cell types, species, and disease states, but mechanisms of nuclear size regulation are poorly understood. We investigated nuclear scaling in the pseudotetraploid frog Xenopus laevis and its smaller diploid relative Xenopus tropicalis, which contains smaller cells and nuclei. Nuclear scaling was recapitulated in vitro using egg extracts, demonstrating that titratable cytoplasmic factors determine nuclear size to a greater extent than DNA content. Nuclear import rates correlated with nuclear size, and varying the concentrations of two transport factors, importin α and Ntf2, was sufficient to account for nuclear scaling between the two species. Both factors modulated lamin B3 import, with importin α increasing overall import rates and Ntf2 reducing import based on cargo size. Importin α also contributes to nuclear size changes during early X. laevis development. Thus, nuclear transport mechanisms are physiological regulators of both interspecies and developmental nuclear scaling.
Expression of chicken lamin B2 in Escherichia coli: characterization of its structure, assembly, and molecular interactions
Dynamics of the genome during early Xenopus laevis development: karyomeres as independent units of replication
Xenopus laevis embryo development: arrest of epidermal cell differentiation by the chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline
Characterization of Ran-driven cargo transport and the RanGTPase system by kinetic measurements and computer simulation
Matrix-bound sixth Ig-like domain of cell adhesion molecule L1 acts as an angiogenic factor by ligating alphavbeta3-integrin and activating VEGF-R2
Nuclear lamins: major factors in the structural organization and function of the nucleus and chromatin
Do nuclear envelope and intranuclear proteins reorganize during mitosis to form an elastic, hydrogel-like spindle matrix?
In vivo T-box transcription factor profiling reveals joint regulation of embryonic neuromesodermal bipotency
Microneedle-based analysis of the micromechanics of the metaphase spindle assembled in Xenopus laevis egg extracts
Fine control of nuclear confinement identifies a threshold deformation leading to lamina rupture and induction of specific genes
An allometric relationship between mitotic spindle width, spindle length, and ploidy in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos
Influence of cell size and DNA content on growth rate and photosystem II function in cryptic species of Ditylum brightwellii
Amphibian interorder nuclear transfer embryos reveal conserved embryonic gene transcription, but deficient DNA replication or chromosome segregation
Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins are required for nuclear size control and heterochromatin organization
Scaffold nucleoporins Nup188 and Nup192 share structural and functional properties with nuclear transport receptors
A Crowdsourced nucleus: understanding nuclear organization in terms of dynamically networked protein function
A two-tier Golgi-based control of organelle size underpins the functional plasticity of endothelial cells
Power law relationship between cell cycle duration and cell volume in the early embryonic development of Caenorhabditis elegans
Nucleus downscaling in mouse embryos is regulated by cooperative developmental and geometric programs
PKC-mediated phosphorylation of nuclear lamins at a single serine residue regulates interphase nuclear size in Xenopus and mammalian cells
Profiling of the Chromatin-associated Proteome Identifies HP1BP3 as a Novel Regulator of Cell Cycle Progression.
In vivo mitotic spindle scaling can be modulated by changing the levels of a single protein: the microtubule polymerase XMAP215
Quantitative microscopy uncovers ploidy changes during mitosis in live Drosophila embryos and their effect on nuclear size
Organelle size control - increasing vacuole content activates SNAREs to augment organelle volume through homotypic fusion
Identification of Conserved MEL-28/ELYS Domains with Essential Roles in Nuclear Assembly and Chromosome Segregation
Nuclear envelope expansion in budding yeast is independent of cell growth and does not determine nuclear volume
Altering the levels of nuclear import factors in early Xenopus laevis embryos affects later development
Light-inducible activation of cell cycle progression in Xenopus egg extracts under microfluidic confinement.
The LINC complex contributes to heterochromatin organisation and transcriptional gene silencing in plants
Nuclear envelope structural proteins facilitate nuclear shape changes accompanying embryonic differentiation and fidelity of gene expression
A systematic genomic screen implicates nucleocytoplasmic transport and membrane growth in nuclear size control
A homeostatic mechanism rapidly corrects aberrant nucleocytoplasmic ratios maintaining nuclear size in fission yeast
Nuclear size changes caused by local motion of cell boundaries unfold the nuclear lamina and dilate chromatin and intranuclear bodies
Neurospora chromosomes are organized by blocks of importin alpha-dependent heterochromatin that are largely independent of H3K9me3
Multinucleation of Incubated Cells and Their Morphological Differences Compared to Mononuclear Cells
Postmitotic annulate lamellae assembly contributes to nuclear envelope reconstitution in daughter cells
Probing the biology of cell boundary conditions through confinement of Xenopus cell-free cytoplasmic extracts
Dynamic optima in cell sizes during early development enable normal gastrulation in zebrafish embryos.
Gene networks and transcriptional regulators associated with liver cancer development and progression.
A dominant-negative form of POM121 binds chromatin and disrupts the two separate modes of nuclear pore assembly
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