The male-to-female ratio of patients requiring dialysis treatment commonly approaches 2:1. It is proposed that environmental factors, particularly occupational exposure to hydrocarbons, may account for the excess number of male patients. The term "hydrocarbon" refers to the aliphatic, alicyclic, aromatic, and halogenated hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform); glycols (ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, dioxane, glycerol); and organic solvents. Hydrocarbons commonly find use as solvents in industrial manufacturing practices because of their lipid solubility. Hydrocarbons have long been known to be neurotoxicants, affecting both peripheral and central nervous systems. Although benzene and its derivative have a known association with uroepithelial tumors, there is now a considerable body of evidence suggesting a possible role for hydrocarbon exposure in the development of non-neoplastic renal diseases. This article presents an epidemiological case for such an association and critically reviews the literature.
Cancer has emerged as a global concern due to its increase in incidence and mortality. Efforts are underway to evaluate and develop action plans to reduce the global burden of cancer. Currently, lung cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer are the leading causes of cancer mortality. Here is the latest research on cancer incidence and mortality.