Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in a municipal sewage treatment system in the south of Sweden

The Science of the Total Environment
Saioa ZoritaLennart Mathiasson

Abstract

The occurrence and removal rate of seven pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin), two metabolites (norfluoxetine, clofibric acid), one degradation product (4-isobutylacetophenone) and 3 estrogens (17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 17beta-estradiol, estrone) were studied in the inlet and outlet of a tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) in Sweden as well as between different treatment steps in the STP which includes a conventional activated sludge step. Pharmaceuticals in raw household and raw hospital sewage streams leading to the STP were as well investigated. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) of each treatment step was considered for sampling and for the calculation of the removal rates. These rates were above 90%, except for diclofenac, clofibric acid, estrone and ofloxacin. However, only diclofenac and naproxen showed significant effluent loads (>145 mg/d/1000 inh). Diclofenac was not eliminated during the treatment and in fact even higher concentrations were found at the effluent than in the inlet of the STP. 17alpha-Ethinylestradiol was not detected in any of the samples. Results indicate that a STP such as the one in Kristianstad, Sweden, with a tertiary treatment is suf...Continue Reading

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Citations

Apr 15, 2014·Journal of Hazardous Materials·W H KrkošekG A Gagnon
Apr 23, 2013·Journal of Hazardous Materials·Hao ChenCheng Gu
Oct 22, 2013·Journal of Hazardous Materials·Hao ChenCheng Gu
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Oct 9, 2014·Membranes·Matthias de CazesJosé Sanchez-Marcano
Feb 22, 2013·The Science of the Total Environment·Héctor Del RíoPablo Ures
Feb 19, 2013·Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy·Jian WangBing Zhang
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