Ochratoxin A and citrinin induced nephrosis in Beagle dogs. I. Clinical and clinicopathological features
Ochratoxin A and citrinin, both mycotoxins, were given separately and combined to young Beagle dogs for 14 days. Ochratoxin A, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg, was given by capsule, and citrinin, 5 and 10 mg/kg, was dissolved in ethanol and given by intraperitoneal injection. Clinical signs of toxicosis in dogs given 10 mg/kg citrinin and the higher combined doses included anorexia, retching, tenesmus, weight loss, prostration and death. Severity of the clinical disease and mortality were increased when the mycotoxins were combined, which indicated synergism. The clinicopathological abnormalities reflected renal damage, in that glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase increased in the urine of the dogs with clinical signs of poisoning. Serum lactic dehydrogenase was increased in dogs given 10 mg/kg citrinin. Cellular and granular casts, ketones, protein and glucose were in the urine of dogs given large doses of citrinin alone or combined with ochratoxin A. Serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride in the dogs given high doses of each group.
Isolation of citrinin and oxalic acid from Penicillium viridicatum Westling and their nephrotoxicity in rats and pigs
The renal lesions of electrolyte imbalance. I. The structural alterations in potassium-depleted rats
The renal lesions of electrolyte imbalance. II. The combined effect on renal architecture of phosphate loading and potassium depletion
In vitro effects of the nephrotoxins ochratoxin A and citrinin upon biochemical function of porcine kidney
Citrinin produces acute adverse changes in renal function and ultrastructure in pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs without concomitant reductions in [potassium]plasma
Retrospective study of melamine/cyanuric acid-induced renal failure in dogs in Korea between 2003 and 2004
Outbreaks of renal failure associated with melamine and cyanuric acid in dogs and cats in 2004 and 2007
Ochratoxin A and citrinin induced nephrosis in Beagle dogs. III. Terminal renal ultrastructural alterations
Cold storage of wheat. 1. Ergosterol, ochratoxin A and citrinin after inoculation with Penicillium verrucosum
A Study of Carry-Over and Histopathological Effects after Chronic Dietary Intake of Citrinin in Pigs, Broiler Chickens and Laying Hens
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterized by severe weight loss and secondary problems associated with malnutrition. Here is the latest research on AN.