DOI: 10.1101/461434Nov 4, 2018Paper

Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Are Co-Opted by the Immune System to Cross-Present Antigen and Mediate Cytotoxicity

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Leslie KirbyPeter A Calabresi

Abstract

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are abundant in the adult CNS and can be recruited to form new oligodendrocytes and myelin in response to injury or disease. However, in multiple sclerosis (MS), oligodendrocyte regeneration and remyelination are often incomplete, suggesting that recruitment and maturation of OPCs is impaired. MS and the rodent model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are characterized by infiltration of activated T-cells into the CNS. To investigate the mechanisms by which this neuroinflammatory process influences OPC mobilization, we performed in vivo fate tracing in an inflammatory demyelinating animal model. Results of our studies showed that the OPC differentiation and myelin production are inhibited by either adoptive transfer of CNS infiltrating cytokine producing effector T-cells or CNS production of interferon gamma (IFNγ), using an astrocyte specific IFNγ transgene model. In both systems, IFNγ changes the profile of OPCs by inducing functional expression of the immunoproteasome and upregulation of MHC class I. OPCs exposed to IFNγ are shown to cross present exogenous antigen to cytotoxic CD8 T-cells, which then produce proteases and FasL that results in subsequent caspase 3/7 activat...Continue Reading

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