Pregnancy is associated with a reduction in maternal serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) percentage and its possible depletion in the maternal store. Since the synthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in the fetus and placenta is low, both the maternal LCPUFA status and placental function are critical for their supply to the fetus. Maternal supplementation with DHA up to 1 g/d or 2·7 g n-3 LCPUFA did not have any harmful effect. DHA supplementation in large studies slightly the enhanced length of gestation (by about 2 days), which may increase the birth weight by about 50 g at delivery. However no advice can be given on their general using to avoid preterm deliveries in low or high risk pregnancies. Several studies, but not all, reported improvements of the offspring in some neurodevelopmental tests as a result of DHA supplementation during gestation, or, at least, positive relationships between maternal or cord serum DHA percentages and cognitive skills in young children. The effect seems more evident in children with low DHA proportions, which raises the question of how to identify those mothers who might have a poor DHA status and who could benefit from such supplementation. Most studies on the eff...Continue Reading
Maternal essential fatty acid patterns during normal pregnancy and their relationship to the neonatal essential fatty acid status
Effects of fish oil supplementation in late pregnancy on blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial
Maternal and neonatal essential fatty acid status in phospholipids: an international comparative study
Placental membrane fatty acid-binding protein preferentially binds arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids
Placental delivery of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids: implications for the lipid nutrition of preterm infants
Randomised clinical trials of fish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies. Fish Oil Trials In Pregnancy (FOTIP) Team
Similar effects on infants of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids supplementation to pregnant and lactating women
Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: prospective cohort study
Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children's IQ at 4 years of age
Erythrocyte cell membrane phospholipid levels compared against reported dietary intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant Mexican women
Maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy reduces interleukin-13 levels in cord blood of infants at high risk of atopy
Scotopic electroretinogram in term infants born of mothers supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy
Maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and visual evoked potential development in term infants: a double blind, prospective, randomised trial
Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial
Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and fetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition
Fish oil in various doses or flax oil in pregnancy and timing of spontaneous delivery: a randomised controlled trial
Effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of women with low-risk pregnancies on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
n -- 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy in women with allergic disease: effects on blood pressure, and maternal and fetal lipids
Supplementation of n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation reduces maternal plasma lipid levels and provides DHA to the infants
Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial
Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study
A docosahexaenoic acid-functional food during pregnancy benefits infant visual acuity at four but not six months of age
Effect of supplementation of women in high-risk pregnancies with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Effects of fish-oil and folate supplementation of pregnant women on maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: a European randomized multicenter trial
Does maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation lower BMI in late infancy?
Maternal consumption of a docosahexaenoic acid-containing functional food during pregnancy: benefit for infant performance on problem-solving but not on recognition memory tasks at age 9 mo
Decreased cord blood IL-4, IL-13, and CCR4 and increased TGF-beta levels after fish oil supplementation of pregnant women
Omega-3 fatty acids and supportive psychotherapy for perinatal depression: a randomized placebo-controlled study
Omega-3 fatty acids as a treatment for perinatal depression: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Beneficial effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acid on infant development: evidence from the inuit of arctic Quebec
Omega-3 fatty acids for major depressive disorder during pregnancy: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Supplementation with 200 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid from mid-pregnancy through lactation improves the docosahexaenoic acid status of mothers with a habitually low fish intake and of their infants
Fish oil intake compared with olive oil intake in late pregnancy and asthma in the offspring: 16 y of registry-based follow-up from a randomized controlled trial
Effect of supplementing pregnant and lactating mothers with n-3 very-long-chain fatty acids on children's IQ and body mass index at 7 years of age
Associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding duration with attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort
Supplementation of a low dose of DHA or DHA+AA does not prevent peripartum depressive symptoms in a small population based sample
The effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal eicosanoid, cytokine, and chemokine secretion
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to prevent recurrent preterm birth: a randomized controlled trial
Maternal-fetal in vivo transfer of [13C]docosahexaenoic and other fatty acids across the human placenta 12 h after maternal oral intake
A pathway-based approach to find novel markers of local glucocorticoid treatment in intermittent allergic rhinitis
Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on gestational age and size at birth: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Mexico
Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: a randomized controlled trial
Growth to age 18 months following prenatal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid differs by maternal gravidity in Mexico
Evidence regarding an effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Evaluation of a public health intervention to lower mercury exposure from fish consumption in Bermuda
Differential levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in women with preeclampsia delivering male and female babies
Neurodevelopmental outcome for offspring of women treated for antenatal depression: a systematic review
Fish oil supplementation improves pregnancy outcomes and size of the newborn: a meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials
Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women
Heterogeneity of the Fatty Acid Composition of Japanese Placentae for Determining the Perinatal Fatty Acid Status: a Methodological Study
Fish Oil Supplementation does not Reduce Risks of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension, or Pre-Eclampsia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Cord blood LC-PUFA composition and allergic diseases during the first 10 yr. Results from the LISAplus study
In vitro effects of vitamins C and E, n-3 and n-6 PUFA and n-9 MUFA on placental cell function and redox status in type 1 diabetic pregnant women
Low Birth Weight in MZ Twins Discordant for Birth Weight is Associated with Shorter Telomere Length and lower IQ, but not Anxiety/Depression in Later Life
Proposing interactions between maternal phospholipids and the one carbon cycle: A novel mechanism influencing the risk for cardiovascular diseases in the offspring in later life
The effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake during pregnancy on adiposity of healthy full-term offspring at birth
Impact of fish oils on the outcomes of a mouse model of acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection
Prenatal Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation and Offspring Development at 18 Months: Randomized Controlled Trial
The effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation in the placenta and maternal plasma during pregnancy
Effect of prenatal DHA supplementation on the infant epigenome: results from a randomized controlled trial
Association of maternal weight with FADS and ELOVL genetic variants and fatty acid levels- The PREOBE follow-up
Effects of maternal n-3 fatty acid supplementation on placental cytokines, pro-resolving lipid mediators and their precursors
Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy Modulates Placental Cellular Signaling and Nutrient Transport Capacity in Obese Women
Yogurt consumption during pregnancy and preterm delivery in Mexican women: A prospective analysis of interaction with maternal overweight status
The effect of fish oil supplementation on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a triple-blind, randomized controlled trial
Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development
Cross-generational trans fat intake modifies BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus: Impact on memory loss in a mania animal model
Pregnancy Requires Major Changes in the Quality of the Diet for Nutritional Adequacy: Simulations in the French and the United States Populations
Effect of nutritionally induced hyperlipidaemia on in vitro bovine embryo quality depends on the type of major fatty acid in the diet
The role of marine omega-3 in human neurodevelopment, including Autism Spectrum Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder - a review
Sociodemographic factors associated with dietary supplement use in early pregnancy in a Swedish cohort
Omega-3 Fatty acids and gestational length in a high-risk psychiatric population due to psychiatric morbidity and medication exposure during pregnancy
Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake norms and preterm birth rate: a cross-sectional analysis of 184 countries
Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity
Child Head Circumference and Placental MFSD2a Expression Are Associated to the Level of MFSD2a in Maternal Blood During Pregnancy.
Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake by Age, Gender, and Pregnancy Status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003⁻2014
The effect of maternal omega-3 (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy on early childhood cognitive and visual development: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on cognition: an updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials
The Impact of Maternal Diet during Pregnancy and Lactation on the Fatty Acid Composition of Erythrocytes and Breast Milk of Chilean Women
Multiple Micronutrients and Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Study.
Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and lower risk of preterm delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Association of maternal omega-6 fatty acid intake with infant birth outcomes: Korean Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH)
Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy
The Impacts of Fish Oil and/or Probiotic Intervention on Low-Grade Inflammation, IGFBP-1 and MMP-8 in Pregnancy: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial.
The association between dietary fatty acid intake and the risk of developing preeclampsia: a matched case-control study.
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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR), fatty acids and microRNAs: Implications in women delivering low birth weight babies.
Maternal dietary deficiency of n-3 fatty acids affects metabolic and epigenetic phenotypes of the developing fetus
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