Ontogenetic integration of the hominoid face

Journal of Human Evolution
Rebecca Rogers Ackermann


By investigating similarity in cranial covariation patterns, it is possible to locate underlying functional and developmental causes for the patterning, and to make inferences about the evolutionary forces that have acted to produce the patterns. Furthermore, establishing where these covariation patterns may diverge in ontogeny can offer insight into when selection may have acted on development. Here, covariation patterns are compared among adult and non-adult members of the African ape/human clade, in order to address three questions. First, are integration patterns constant among adult African apes and humans? Second, are they are constant in non-adults--i.e. throughout ontogeny? Third, if they are not constant, when do they diverge? Measurements are obtained from 677 crania of adult and non-adult African apes and humans. In order to address the first two questions, correlation matrices and theoretical integration matrices are compared using matrix correlation methods. The third question is evaluated by comparing correlation and variance/covariance patterns, using matrix correlation and random skewers methods, respectively, between adjacent age categories within each species, and between equivalent age categories among the fo...Continue Reading


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