Opiate modification of amygdaloid-kindled seizures in rats
Male Long-Evans rats were stereotaxically implanted bilaterally with bipolar electrodes in the central amygdala. Rats were then kindled once daily for 1 sec until 3 consecutive Stage V  kindled seizures were elicited. On the following day, animals were injected (IP) with either saline, naloxone (10 mg/kg), naltrexone (10mg/kg) or morphine sulfate (10 mg/kg) and again stimulated at the kindling stimulation parameters. Saline injected animals continued to show long bilateral AD's and behaviors (i.e., forelimb clonus, rearing, falling) typical of Stage V kindled animals. In contrast, rats injected with naloxone or naltrexone showed reduced behavioral seizures. Potentiation of post-ictal spiking by morphine in amygdaloid-kindled rats was also observed supporting previous reports [7,21]. In a second experiment, the reduction of kindled seizure serverity by naloxone was systematically replicated. It is concluded that opiates can significantly modify amygdaloid-kindled seizures, and that brain endorphins may play a role in the development or maintenance of an amygdaloid-kindled seizure focus.
Epileptic properties of leucine- and methionine-enkephalin: comparison with morphine and reversibility by naloxone
Metabolic profile of opioid peptides differs in the hippocampus and striatum of seizure-susceptible E1 mice
Regional brain IR-Met-, IR-Leu-enkephalin concentrations during progress and full electrical amygdaloid kindling
Immediate and long-term effects of opiate antagonists on postictal behaviour following amygdala kindling in the rat
Hippocampal kindling-induced after-discharge and behavioural depression: immediate and long-term attenuation by opiate antagonists
Adenosine antagonists. Lack of effect on the inhibition of kindled seizures in rats by carbamazepine
Effects of cold-restraint and swim stress on convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol and electroshock: influence of naloxone pretreatment
Changes of proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs and related peptides in rat brain during the development of deep prepyriform cortex kindling
The behavioural depression of hippocampal kindled rats is attenuated by subcutaneous and intracerebroventricular naltrexone
Amygdaloid kindling increases enkephalin-like immunoreactivity but decreases dynorphin-A-like immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus
Convulsant action of morphine, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin and naloxone in the rat amygdala: electroencephalographic, morphological and behavioural sequelae
Characterization of mu opioid receptor binding during amygdala kindling in rats and effects of chronic naloxone pretreatment: an autoradiographic study
Effect of low-intensity 50-Hz magnetic fields on kindling acquisition and fully kindled seizures in rats
No effect of 50 Hz magnetic field observed in a pilot study on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and mortality in mice
Inhibitory effects of powerline-frequency (60-Hz) magnetic fields on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures and mortality in rats
An in vitro autoradiographic analysis of mu and delta opioid binding in the hippocampal formation of kindled rats
Prolonged postictal depression in amygdala-kindled rats by the adenosine analog, L-phenylisopropyladenosine
Amygdala: Sensory Processes
Amygdalae, nuclei clusters located in the temporal lobe of the brain, play a role in memory, emotional responses, and decision-making. Here is the latest research on sensory processes in the amygdala.
Amygdala and Midbrain Dopamine
The midbrain dopamine system is widely studied for its involvement in emotional and motivational behavior. Some of these neurons receive information from the amygdala and project throughout the cortex. When the circuit and transmission of dopamine is disrupted symptoms may present. Here is the latest research on the amygdala and midbrain dopamine.