DOI: 10.1101/460535Nov 4, 2018Paper

Opto-activation of cortical somatostatin interneurons alleviates parkinsonian symptoms

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Marie VandecasteeleLaurent Venance

Abstract

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is a symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease but benefits only to a minority of patients due to stringent eligibility criteria. To investigate new targets for less invasive therapies, we aimed at elucidating key mechanisms supporting deep brain stimulation efficiency. Here, using in vivo electrophysiology, optogenetics and modeling, we found that subthalamic stimulation normalizes pathological hyperactivity of motor cortex pyramidal cells, while concurrently activating somatostatin and inhibiting parvalbumin interneurons. In vivo opto-activation of cortical somatostatin interneurons alleviates motor symptoms in a parkinsonian mouse model. A mathematical model highlights how the decrease in pyramidal neurons activity can restore information processing capabilities. Overall, these results demonstrate that activation of cortical somatostatin interneurons may constitute a less invasive alternative than subthalamic stimulation.

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