PMID: 8180584Jan 1, 1993Paper

Oral cancer inhibition by micronutrients. The experimental basis for clinical trials

European Journal of Cancer. Part B, Oral Oncology
G Shklar, J L Schwartz

Abstract

Extensive research has been carried out in experimental animals to demonstrate the anticancer activity of retinoids, carotenoids and tocopherol on oral cancer and oral precancerous leukoplakia. The anticancer properties of these micronutrients have been studied in experiments dealing with inhibition of carcinogenesis, prevention of oral cancer development and regression of established oral carcinoma. Synergism has been demonstrated in the anticancer activity of beta carotene and alpha tocopherol. Synergism has also been demonstrated between beta carotene and anticancer alkylating agents such as melphalan and cyclophosphamide. Micronutrients such as beta carotene have been found to inhibit both major phases of carcinogenesis--initiation and promotion. Animal studies of oral cancer inhibition, prevention and regression have been substantiated by tissue culture studies, using animal and human derived oral cancer cell lines and normal epithelial cells. Mechanisms of the anticancer activity of the micronutrients on experimental oral cancer have been explored. They include stimulation of elements of the immune system to kill cancer cells, and enhanced expression of heat-shock proteins and repressor genes such as P 53.

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