Oral Dyskinesias and striatal lesions in rats after long-term co-treatment with haloperidol and 3-nitropropionic acid

O A AndreassenH A Jørgensen


The pathophysiologic basis of tardive dyskinesia remains unclear. It has been proposed that tardive dyskinesia may be a result of excitotoxic neurodegeneration in the striatum caused by a neuroleptic-induced increase in striatal glutamate release and impaired energy metabolism. To investigate this hypothesis, haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg/four weeks intramuscularly) and the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (8 mg/kg/day via subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps), were administered alone or together for 16 weeks to four-months-old rats. Control rats received sesame oil intramuscularly and had empty plastic tubes subcutaneously. Vacuous chewing movements, a putative analogue to human tardive dyskinesia, were recorded during and after drug treatment. Haloperidol alone, 3-nitropropionic acid alone, and 3-nitropropionic acid+haloperidol treatments induced an increase in vacuous chewing movements. However, vacuous chewing movements were more pronounced and appeared earlier in rats treated with 3-nitropropionic acid+haloperidol. After drug withdrawal, increases in vacuous chewing movements persisted for 16 weeks in the haloperidol alone and 3-nitropropionic acid+haloperidol group and for four weeks in the 3-nitroprop...Continue Reading


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