Oral first-pass elimination of midazolam involves both gastrointestinal and hepatic CYP3A-mediated metabolism

Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
K E ThummelG R Wilkinson

Abstract

To determine in humans the relative roles of intestinal and hepatic metabolism in the oral first-pass elimination of a CYP3A substrate using midazolam as a model compound. Midazolam was administered intravenously (1 mg) or orally (2 mg) to 20 healthy young subjects (10 men and 10 women) in a random fashion, and the disposition of the drug and its 1'-hydroxy metabolite were determined. In separate in vitro studies, the CYP3A-mediated formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam by human hepatic and intestinal microsomes was investigated. No gender-related differences were noted in either the systemic (370 +/- 114 ml/min [mean +/- SD]) or oral (1413 +/- 807 ml/min) clearance values of midazolam. Despite complete oral absorption, measured oral bioavailability was on average about 50% less than that predicted on the assumption that only the liver contributed to first-pass metabolism. Pharmacokinetic estimation of the intestinal component indicated an extraction ratio (0.43 +/- 0.24) that was similar to that of the liver (0.44 +/- 0.14). 1'-Hydroxymidazolam was extensively but variably formed in vitro by both hepatic and intestinal microsomes and, although the intrinsic clearance (V(max)/Km) was higher in the liver preparations (540 +/- 747 ver...Continue Reading

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