Oral vaccination of dogs: a well-studied and undervalued tool for achieving human and dog rabies elimination

Veterinary Research
Florence CliquetFrançois-Xavier Meslin


The mass vaccination of dogs is a proven tool for rabies prevention. Besides parenteral delivery of inactivated vaccines, over the past several decades, several self-replicating biologics, including modified-live, attenuated and recombinant viruses, have been evaluated for the oral vaccination of dogs against rabies. Vaccines are included within an attractive bait for oral consumption by free-ranging dogs. Due to the high affinity between dogs and humans, such biologics intended for oral vaccination of dogs (OVD) need to be efficacious as well as safe. Baits should be preferentially attractive to dogs and not to non-target species. Although many different types have been evaluated successfully, no universal bait has been identified to date. Moreover, high bait acceptance does not necessarily mean that vaccine efficacy and programmatic success is predictable. The use of OVD in the laboratory and field has demonstrated the safety and utility of this technology. Within a One Health context, OVD should be considered as part of a holistic plan for the global elimination of canine rabies.


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