Organization of an activator-bound RNA polymerase holoenzyme

Molecular Cell
Daniel BoseXiaodong Zhang


Transcription initiation involves the conversion from closed promoter complexes, comprising RNA polymerase (RNAP) and double-stranded promoter DNA, to open complexes, in which the enzyme is able to access the DNA template in a single-stranded form. The complex between bacterial RNAP and its major variant sigma factor sigma(54) remains as a closed complex until ATP hydrolysis-dependent remodeling by activator proteins occurs. This remodeling facilitates DNA melting and allows the transition to the open complex. Here we present cryoelectron microscopy reconstructions of bacterial RNAP in complex with sigma(54) alone, and of RNAP-sigma(54) with an AAA+ activator. Together with photo-crosslinking data that establish the location of promoter DNA within the complexes, we explain why the RNAP-sigma(54) closed complex is unable to access the DNA template and propose how the structural changes induced by activator binding can initiate conformational changes that ultimately result in formation of the open complex.


Dec 1, 1988·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S Sasse-Dwight, J D Gralla
Jul 5, 1988·Journal of Molecular Biology·S Sasse-Dwight, J D Gralla
Jan 15, 1994·Structure·P E SteinR J Read
Sep 30, 1998·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Y Guo, J D Gralla
Jan 8, 1999·Journal of Molecular Biology·P Casaz, M Buck
May 1, 1999·Journal of Structural Biology·W WriggersJ A McCammon
May 18, 1999·Journal of Molecular Biology·M T Gallegos, M Buck
Aug 14, 1999·Molecular Microbiology·J A OguizaM Buck
Nov 5, 1999·Journal of Molecular Biology·S Busby, R H Ebright
Dec 22, 1999·Journal of Structural Biology·S J LudtkeW Chiu
Jun 28, 2000·Nucleic Acids Research·E Southern, M Merrick
Jul 14, 2000·Journal of Bacteriology·M BuckJ D Gralla
Sep 6, 2000·Trends in Biochemical Sciences·S A Datwyler, C F Meares
Oct 19, 2000·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·W CannonM Buck
Mar 10, 2001·Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics·M van HeelA Patwardhan
Mar 13, 2001·Journal of Molecular Biology·S R WigneshwerarajM Buck
Aug 31, 2001·Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR·L Reitzer, B L Schneider
May 10, 2002·Nature·Dmitry G VassylyevShigeyuki Yokoyama
Nov 9, 2002·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Siva R WigneshwerarajMartin Buck
Feb 26, 2003·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Patricia BordesMartin Buck
Mar 22, 2003·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Wendy CannonMartin Buck
May 17, 2003·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Patricia C BurrowsSiva R Wigneshweraraj
Mar 24, 2004·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Douglas F Browning, Stephen J Busby
Oct 8, 2004·The EMBO Journal·Patricia C BurrowsSiva R Wigneshweraraj
Mar 26, 2005·Science·Mathieu RappasXiaodong Zhang
Jun 7, 2005·Nature Structural & Molecular Biology·Yin Chun LinJay D Gralla
Aug 27, 2005·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Siva R WigneshwerarajMartin Buck
Aug 30, 2005·Journal of Structural Biology·Marin van Heel, Michael Schatz
Oct 8, 2005·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Michaeleen DoucleffDavid E Wemmer
Aug 24, 2006·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Robert N LeachPeter George Stockley

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Nov 12, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Brian P HudsonCatherine L Lawson
May 5, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Patricia C BurrowsMartin Buck
Sep 12, 2012·Nucleic Acids Research·Simone C WieslerMartin Buck
Apr 7, 2010·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Benny F G PyckeNatalie Leys
Aug 31, 2012·Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR·Matthew Bush, Ray Dixon
Jun 26, 2012·Annual Review of Microbiology·David J LeeStephen J W Busby
Jun 7, 2011·Annual Review of Microbiology·Sofia ÖsterbergVictoria Shingler
May 27, 2015·Biomolecules·Nan Zhang, Martin Buck
Jul 27, 2014·Nucleic Acids Research·Vidya C DarbariMartin Buck
Sep 24, 2013·Journal of Molecular Biology·Nan ZhangMartin Buck
Apr 10, 2009·Journal of Molecular Biology·Patricia C BurrowsMartin Buck
Jan 17, 2013·The FEBS Journal·Massimo SabbatiniGiovanni Bertoni
Jun 18, 2015·Nucleic Acids Research·Jorrit SchaeferMartin Buck
Sep 13, 2011·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Nicolas JolyXiaodong Zhang
Nov 9, 2010·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Victoria Shingler
Jul 16, 2010·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Tamaswati GhoshXiaodong Zhang
Sep 25, 2012·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Xin LiuRoger D Kornberg
Dec 8, 2014·Journal of Biotechnology·Pietro AlifanoAdelfia Talà
May 25, 2016·PLoS Biology·Hande BoyaciFrederick M Hughson
Mar 4, 2010·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Nicolas Joly, Martin Buck
Feb 19, 2019·Environmental Microbiology·Henrik SeibtVictoria Shingler
Dec 10, 2013·Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications·Tatyana A SysoevaB Tracy Nixon
Oct 30, 2016·The Biochemical Journal·Nan ZhangMartin Buck
Oct 5, 2017·Scientific Reports·Megan G LloydChristopher T Nomura

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned

gel filtration
electron microscopy

Software Mentioned


Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.