Sep 24, 1999

Organophosphorus nerve agents-induced seizures and efficacy of atropine sulfate as anticonvulsant treatment

Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
T-M Shih, John H McDonough

Abstract

The ability of five organophosphorus nerve agents (tabun, sarin, soman, GF, and VX) to produce brain seizures and the effectiveness of atropine as an anticonvulsant treatment against these nerve agents were studied in two different animal models--the rat and guinea pig. All animals were implanted with cortical electrodes for EEG recordings. Five minutes after the start of nerve agent-induced EEG seizures, animals were treated intramuscularly (IM) with different doses of atropine sulfate and observed for seizure termination. The anticonvulsant ED50 of atropine sulfate for termination of seizures induced by each nerve agent was calculated and compared. In the rat model, selected oximes were administered either before, concurrent with, or following challenge with a 1.6 x LD50 dose of a given nerve agent to maximize seizure development with certain agent/oxime combinations. The choice and the timing of oxime administration significantly effected the incidence of seizure development by different nerve agents. When oxime administration did not effect seizure development (tabun, soman) the anticonvulsant ED50 for atropine sulfate was the same, regardless of the nerve agent used to elicit the seizure. When oxime administration reduced ...Continue Reading

  • References22
  • Citations55

References

  • References22
  • Citations55

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Anticonvulsants
Oximes
Cavia
Soman
Pseudocholinesterase
Atropine
Atropinum, atropine
Pyridostigmine
Cholinesterase Measurement
Pralidoxime

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