The genetic code is nearly universal, and the arrangement of the codons in the standard codon table is highly nonrandom. The three main concepts on the origin and evolution of the code are the stereochemical theory, according to which codon assignments are dictated by physicochemical affinity between amino acids and the cognate codons (anticodons); the coevolution theory, which posits that the code structure coevolved with amino acid biosynthesis pathways; and the error minimization theory under which selection to minimize the adverse effect of point mutations and translation errors was the principal factor of the code's evolution. These theories are not mutually exclusive and are also compatible with the frozen accident hypothesis, that is, the notion that the standard code might have no special properties but was fixed simply because all extant life forms share a common ancestor, with subsequent changes to the code, mostly, precluded by the deleterious effect of codon reassignment. Mathematical analysis of the structure and possible evolutionary trajectories of the code shows that it is highly robust to translational misreading but there are numerous more robust codes, so the standard code potentially could evolve from a rand...Continue Reading
The extension reached by the minimization of the polarity distances during the evolution of the genetic code
Evidence for the interaction of nucleotides with immobilized amino-acids and its significance for the origin of the genetic code
Triplet nucleotide-amino-acid pairing; a stereochemical basis for the division between protein and non-protein amino-acids
On the optimization of the physicochemical distances between amino acids in the evolution of the genetic code
The 'polysemous' codon--a codon with multiple amino acid assignment caused by dual specificity of tRNA identity.
A novel wobble rule found in starfish mitochondria. Presence of 7-methylguanosine at the anticodon wobble position expands decoding capability of tRNA.
Selective advantages created by codon ambiguity allowed for the evolution of an alternative genetic code in Candida spp
The genetic code: what is it good for? An analysis of the effects of selection pressures on genetic codes
C to U editing of the anticodon of imported mitochondrial tRNA(Trp) allows decoding of the UGA stop codon in Leishmania tarentolae
The plausibility of RNA-templated peptides: simultaneous RNA affinity for adjacent peptide side chains.
Sequence signatures of direct complementarity between mRNAs and cognate proteins on multiple levels.
Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues.
The transition from noncoded to coded protein synthesis: did coding mRNAs arise from stability-enhancing binding partners to tRNA?
On universal common ancestry, sequence similarity, and phylogenetic structure: the sins of P-values and the virtues of Bayesian evidence.
Comparison of the frequency of functional SH3 domains with different limited sets of amino acids using mRNA display
Revisiting the physico-chemical hypothesis of code origin: an analysis based on code-sequence coevolution in a finite population
Codon sextets with leading role of serine create "ideal" symmetry classification scheme of the genetic code
Genetic code evolution reveals the neutral emergence of mutational robustness, and information as an evolutionary constraint
Cross-species conservation of complementary amino acid-ribonucleobase interactions and their potential for ribosome-free encoding
Hypothesis of Lithocoding: Origin of the Genetic Code as a "Double Jigsaw Puzzle" of Nucleobase-Containing Molecules and Amino Acids Assembled by Sequential Filling of Apatite Mineral Cellules
Proteome-wide analysis reveals clues of complementary interactions between mRNAs and their cognate proteins as the physicochemical foundation of the genetic code
Ancestral Reconstruction of a Pre-LUCA Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetase Ancestor Supports the Late Addition of Trp to the Genetic Code
Computational analysis of amino acids and their sidechain analogs in crowded solutions of RNA nucleobases with implications for the mRNA-protein complementarity hypothesis.
Absolute binding-free energies between standard RNA/DNA nucleobases and amino-acid sidechain analogs in different environments
CRISPR Ribonucleases Deactivation
CRISPR-Cas system enables the editing of genes to create or correct mutations. This feed focuses on mechanisms that underlie deactivation of CRISPR ribonucleases. Here is the latest research.