Reliable, prenatal detection of congenital heart disease has become possible over the past decade with the evolution of fetal echocardiography. We have documented the outcome of 170 cardiac defects diagnosed prenatally since 1984. Of 170 cases, 55 (32%) had major extracardiac malformations and 45 (28%) chromosomal abnormalities (16 had both). Elective termination was chosen in 77 (45%) pregnancies. Of 93 continuing pregnancies 15 were stillborn and 43 died postnatally (48% of these fetuses and infants had extracardiac or chromosomal anomalies, or both). Thirty-five patients survive at 1 to 80 months (mean 36). Aneuploidy or extracardiac defects are present in 20% of survivors. Nonimmune hydrops secondary to cardiac failure was present in 7 continuing pregnancies and none of these patients survived. The prognosis of prenatally diagnosed cardiac lesions is negatively influenced by the presence of cardiac failure, aneuploidy or extracardiac malformations, or a combination of these. Optimal counseling and management requires the identification of these conditions when present.
Tricuspid valve disease with significant tricuspid insufficiency in the fetus: diagnosis and outcome
Congenital cardiovascular malformations associated with chromosome abnormalities: an epidemiologic study
Ultrasound screening for congenital cardiac malformations in the fetus. Its importance for peri- and postnatal care
Congenital heart disease and extracardiac anomalies: associations and indications for fetal echocardiography
The frequency of aneuploidy in prenatally diagnosed congenital heart disease: an indication for fetal karyotyping
Prenatal detection of cardiovascular malformations by echocardiography: an indication for cytogenetic evaluation
Fetal echocardiographic screening for congenital heart disease: the importance of the four-chamber view
Prenatal diagnosis and management of congenital heart defect: significance of associated fetal anomalies and prenatal chromosome studies
Correlation between fetal cardiac diagnosis by obstetric and pediatric cardiologist sonographers and comparison with postnatal findings
Comparative analysis of pattern, management and outcome of pre- versus postnatally diagnosed major congenital heart disease: a population-based study
Antenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease and Down's syndrome: the potential effect on the practice of paediatric cardiology
Ductus venosus blood flow velocity waveforms as a predictor for fetal outcome in isolated congenital heart disease
Outcome for fetuses with prenatally detected congenital heart disease and cardiac arrhythmias in Taiwan
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease in the Naples area during the years 1994-1999 -- the experience of a joint fetal-pediatric cardiology unit
Understanding congenital heart defects through abdominal fetal electrocardiography: case reports and clinical implications
Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography (FINE): a novel method for rapid, simple, and automatic examination of the fetal heart
Simple targeted arterial rendering (STAR) technique: a novel and simple method to visualize the fetal cardiac outflow tracts
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease: trends in pregnancy termination rate, and perinatal and 1-year infant mortalities in Korea between 1994 and 2005
Prospective evaluation of the fetal heart using Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography (FINE)
Trends and outcomes after prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiac malformations by fetal echocardiography in a well defined birth population, Atlanta, Georgia, 1990-1994
Has fetal echocardiography improved the prognosis of congenital heart disease? Comparison of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with and without prenatal diagnosis
Short-term outcome of isolated and associated congenital heart defects in relation to antenatal ultrasound screening
ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Clinical Application of Echocardiography). Developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography
Recent trends in indications of fetal echocardiography and postnatal outcomes in fetuses diagnosed as congenital heart disease
Prenatal screening for congenital heart disease with four-chamber and outflow-tract views: a multicenter study
Ebstein's malformation of the tricuspid valve: genetic and environmental factors. The Baltimore-Washington Infant Study Group
Should all pregnant diabetic women undergo a fetal echocardiography? A cost-effectiveness analysis comparing four screening strategies
Semiautomatic Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography Has the Potential to Aid Cardiac Evaluations Even in Less Experienced Hands
Changing spectrum and outcome of 705 fetal congenital heart disease cases: 12 years, experience in a third-level center
Feasibility of Semiautomatic Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography for Different Fetal Spine Positions: A Matter of "Time"?
Diagnostic performance of fetal intelligent navigation echocardiography (FINE) in fetuses with double-outlet right ventricle (DORV)
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