P450 oxidoreductase: genetic polymorphisms and implications for drug metabolism and toxicity

Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Steven N Hart, Xiao-bo Zhong

Abstract

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only electron donor for all microsomal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP), some of which are phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes, responsible for oxidation of more than 80% of drugs. To provide a more thorough understanding of the genetic factors influencing drug metabolism, we address the role of genetic polymorphisms in the POR gene, and their implications for drug metabolism and cytotoxicity. The scope of this review is intended to cover polymorphisms currently identified in the POR gene, assess their functional significance on POR activity, and address their impact on CYP-mediated drug metabolism. POR is also responsible for directly metabolizing several anticancer prodrugs via a 1-electron reduction reaction, so the effect of POR polymorphisms on the direct bioactivation of drugs is also considered. POR is a polymorphic enzyme that can affect CYP-mediated drug metabolism as well as direct bioactivation of prodrugs. Genetic polymorphisms in the POR gene may help to explain altered drug-metabolizing phenotypes.

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Related Concepts

Cytochrome P-450 Oxygenase
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Metabolic Detoxication, Drug
NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase
Pharmacogenomics
Genetic Polymorphism
Prodrugs
Cytochrome P450
Electrons
Microsomes, Liver

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