Feb 25, 2017

Pain avoidance predicts disability and depressive symptoms three years later in individuals with whiplash complaints

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
V ZetterqvistRikard K Wicksell


Longstanding symptoms due to whiplash are commonly associated with decreased levels of emotional and physical functioning. To date, there is strong empirical support for the relationship between psychological in/flexibility and pain-related functioning, but the predictive role for future health is largely unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate if psychological in/flexibility (i.e. avoidance and cognitive fusion) predicted pain disability and depressive symptoms 3 years later in individuals with whiplash complaints. Data were collected at baseline and at a 3 year follow-up from 368 members of a national patient organization for people with whiplash-associated disorder. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, background variables, pain related variables, psychological distress and psychological inflexibility at baseline were evaluated as predictors of levels of pain disability and depressive symptoms at follow-up. Results showed that psychological inflexibility, and more specifically avoidance, was a unique predictor of pain disability and depressive symptoms, also when controlling for background variables, pain related variables and psychological distress. Level of education was also found to predict b...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Visual Analog Pain Scale
Psychosexual Disorders
Memory for Designs Test
Psychological Distress
Mental Suffering
Whiplash Injuries

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