May 13, 2011

Pain in chronic kidney disease: prevalence, cause and management

Journal of Renal Care
Theodora KafkiaJohn Sedgewick


Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience and is the most common symptom experienced by renal patients. It can be caused by primary co-morbid diseases, renal replacement therapies, medication or treatment side effects, and its intensity varies from moderate to severe. Pain management in renal patients is difficult, since the distance between pain relief and toxicity is very small. This paper will provide an algorithm for pain management proposed using paracetamol, nonsteroid anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), mild and stronger opioids as well as complementary techniques. Quality of Life (QoL) and overall enhancement of the patient experience through better pain management are also discussed. To improve pain management it is essential that nurses recognise that they have direct responsibilities related to pain assessment and tailoring of opioid analgesics and better and more detailed education.

  • References56
  • Citations6


  • References56
  • Citations6


Mentioned in this Paper

Visual Analog Pain Scale
Chronic Kidney Insufficiency
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Adverse Effects
Health Care Seeking Behavior
Opioid analgesics

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