DOI: 10.1101/490672Dec 8, 2018Paper

Parsing heterogeneity in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with individual connectome mapping

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Dina R DajaniLucina Q Uddin

Abstract

Traditional diagnostic systems for mental illnesses define diagnostic categories that are heterogeneous in behavior and underlying neurobiological alterations. The goal of this study was to parse heterogeneity in a core executive function, cognitive flexibility, in children with a range of abilities (N=132; children with autism spectrum disorder [ASD], attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], and typically developing [TD] children) using directed functional connectivity profiles derived from resting-state fMRI data. Brain regions activated in response to a cognitive flexibility task in adults were used guide region-of-interest (ROI) selection to estimate individual connectivity profiles in this study. We expected to find at least three subgroups of children who differed in their network connectivity metrics and symptom measures. Unexpectedly, we did not find a stable or valid subgrouping solution, which suggests that categorical models of the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility in children may be invalid. Results shed light on the validity of conceptualizing the neural substrates of cognitive flexibility categorically in children. Ultimately, this work may provide a foundation for the development of a revised nos...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Mental Disorders
Classification
Region of Interest
Executive Function
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Brain Region
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Subgroup
Cognitive Flexibility
Study

Related Feeds

BioRxiv & MedRxiv Preprints

BioRxiv and MedRxiv are the preprint servers for biology and health sciences respectively, operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Here are the latest preprint articles (which are not peer-reviewed) from BioRxiv and MedRxiv.

Attention Disorders

Attention is involved in all cognitive activities, and attention disorders are reported in patients with various neurological diseases. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to attention disorders.

Autism

Autism spectrum disorder is associated with challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, and often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues. Here is the latest research on autism.