Pathobiology of acute myocardial ischemia: metabolic, functional and ultrastructural studies
Acute myocardial ischemia induced by coronary occlusion in dogs is most severe in the subendocardial region, whereas more collateral blood flow is often present in the subepicardial region. Initially, all ischemic myocytes are reversibly injured, but beginning at 15 to 20 minutes after the onset, and continuing for 3 to 6 hours, there is a wave front of cell death from the subendocardial region to the less ischemic subepicardial region, such that by 6 hours, the final transmural extent of the infarct is established. Thus, ischemic myocardium cannot be salvaged by reperfusion after greater than or equal to 6 hours of coronary occlusion in open-chest anesthetized dogs. In the severely ischemic subendocardial region, most of the creatine phosphate is lost within the first 3 minutes of ischemia in vivo, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is depleted to 35% of control by 15 minutes (when cellular injury is still reversible), and to less than 10% of control at 40 minutes (when injury is irreversible). Tissue ATP content and other indexes of subcellular damage have also been compared after different periods of ischemia using a model of total myocardial ischemia in vitro. As long as the ATP of the tissue was not depleted below 5 mumols/g...Continue Reading
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Cardiovascular Diseases: Risk Factors
Cardiovascular disease is a significant health concern. Risk factors include hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Women who are postmenopausal are at an increased risk of heart disease. Here is the latest research for risk factors of cardiovascular disease.