Pathways to immunity: temporal dynamics of the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) immune response against a trypanosomal gut parasite

Insect Molecular Biology
Carolyn RiddellEamonn B Mallon


Immune response dynamics in insects from natural host-parasite associations are poorly understood, despite accumulating evidence of ecological immune phenomena in these systems. Using a gene discovery approach, we have identified genes relating to signalling, enzymatic processes and respiration that were up-regulated in the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, during infection with the trypanosomatid parasite, Crithidia bombi. In addition, we have mapped dynamic changes in the temporal expression of these genes and three candidate antimicrobial peptide (AMP) immune genes, Abaecin, Defensin and Hymenoptaecin, from 1 to 24 h after C. bombi infection. We show that dynamic changes in expression occur for individual genes at distinct phases of the immune response to C. bombi that correspond to early, intermediate and late stages of infection.


Nov 12, 1996·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·George DimopoulosC Louis
Jan 1, 1997·Annual Review of Entomology·J P GillespieT Trenczek
Sep 1, 1997·Nucleic Acids Research·S F AltschulD J Lipman
Oct 23, 1997·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·George DimopoulosFotis C Kafatos
Feb 7, 1998·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Bruno LemaitreJ A Hoffmann
Sep 16, 1998·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S Uttenweiler-JosephPhilippe Bulet
Feb 11, 1999·Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology·G Yepiz-PlascenciaG Romo-Figueroa
Jul 30, 1999·Developmental and Comparative Immunology·S NatoriA Kobayashi
May 8, 2000·BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology·Anthony Nappi, E Ottaviani
Feb 13, 2001·Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology·N BoulangerJ L Imler
Jul 5, 2001·Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS·A BeschinP De Baetselier
Jul 28, 2001·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·H J CariusD Ebert
Oct 11, 2001·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Z HaoSerap Aksoy
Oct 19, 2001·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Ennio De GregorioBruno Lemaitre
Oct 19, 2001·Oncogene·M D Schaller
Dec 14, 2001·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·P IrvingCharles Hetru
Feb 16, 2002·Methods : a Companion to Methods in Enzymology·K J Livak, T D Schmittgen
Feb 28, 2002·Trends in Immunology·Robert P A WallinHans-Gustaf Ljunggren
May 29, 2002·The EMBO Journal·Ennio De GregorioBruno Lemaitre
Jun 22, 2002·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·George DimopoulosFotis C Kafatos
Jul 10, 2002·Trends in Immunology·Huguette BausingerDaniel Hanau
Oct 5, 2002·Science·George K ChristophidesFotis C Kafatos
Mar 26, 2003·Genes to Cells : Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms·Svetlana MinakhinaRuth Steward
Jan 30, 2004·EMBO Reports·Katarina Roxström-LindquistIngrid Faye
May 19, 2004·Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP·Olga Loseva, Ylva Engström
Jun 18, 2004·Immunological Reviews·Lage Cerenius, Kenneth Söderhäll
Oct 20, 2004·Journal of Invertebrate Pathology·P Korner, Paul Schmid-Hempel
Feb 8, 2005·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Yiorgos ApidianakisLaurence G Rahme
Jun 23, 2005·Nature Immunology·Tom J LittleAndrew F Read
Aug 3, 2005·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Nicolas VodovarBruno Lemaitre
Nov 8, 2005·Science·Eun-Mi HaWon-Jae Lee
Jan 13, 2006·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Jay D Evans, Jeffery S Pettis
Apr 8, 2006·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Robert J GegearJames D Thomson
Apr 26, 2006·Trends in Parasitology·Nathalie BoulangerCarl Lowenberger
May 23, 2006·Nature Cell Biology·Noriko TakegaharaHitoshi Kikutani
Oct 19, 2006·Science's STKE : Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment·Hans Häcker, Michael Karin
Oct 31, 2006·Nature·Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium
Jan 5, 2007·Annual Review of Immunology·Bruno Lemaitre, Jules Hoffmann
Jan 16, 2007·Biology of the Cell·Joseph Tcherkezian, Nathalie Lamarche-Vane
May 1, 2007·Journal of Evolutionary Biology·F M Jiggins, K W Kim
Dec 7, 2007·Current Biology : CB·Pascale F Dijkers, Patrick H O'Farrell
Dec 19, 2007·Nature Immunology·Kazuhiro SuzukiHitoshi Kikutani
Jan 2, 2008·PLoS Pathogens·Dominique ColinetMarylène Poirié
Jan 23, 2008·International Immunology·Midori YamamotoHitoshi Kikutani
May 7, 2008·Trends in Immunology·Lage CereniusKenneth Söderhäll
Jun 3, 2008·Journal of Insect Physiology·Eleanor R HaineJens Rolff
Nov 19, 2008·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Zhong WangMichael Snyder
Jul 9, 2009·Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry·Mat YamageMinoru Yamakawa
Jan 13, 2010·PLoS Genetics·Timothy B SacktonAndrew G Clark
Feb 11, 2010·Developmental and Comparative Immunology·Helge SchlünsRoss H Crozier
Feb 27, 2010·PLoS Biology·International Aphid Genomics Consortium
Jun 11, 2010·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Stuart K J R AuldTom J Little


Mar 30, 2013·Developmental and Comparative Immunology·Erick Garcia-GarciaVictor Mulero
May 23, 2014·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Franziska S BrunnerS M Barribeau
Nov 29, 2014·BMC Genomics·Carolyn RiddellEamonn B Mallon
Jun 13, 2014·The American Naturalist·Mark F DybdahlScott L Nuismer
Mar 24, 2012·Journal of Invertebrate Pathology·Chris Hauton
May 3, 2012·Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology·Qi GaoGraham J Thompson
Jul 8, 2015·Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society·Elizabeth CollisonCharles Tyler
Sep 24, 2013·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·S M Barribeau, Paul Schmid-Hempel
Apr 3, 2015·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Mohammad RahnamaeianAndreas Vilcinskas
Sep 26, 2013·Developmental and Comparative Immunology·Soni Deshwal, Eamonn B Mallon
Mar 6, 2015·Frontiers in Genetics·Alessandro CiniSeirian Sumner
May 11, 2016·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Monika MarxerP Schmid-Hempel
May 18, 2016·Behavioural Processes·Ken SullivanShelley A Adamo
Aug 20, 2016·Journal of Evolutionary Biology·S M Barribeau, P Schmid-Hempel
Jul 28, 2017·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Ann T Tate, Andrea L Graham
May 14, 2019·Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology·Qiushi LiuTatsuhiko Kadowaki
Apr 13, 2018·Scientific Reports·Callum D MartinM J F Brown
Oct 22, 2020·The Journal of Animal Ecology·Cristina BotíasDave Goulson

Related Concepts

Host-Parasite Interactions
Genomic Hybridization
Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction
Genes, Insect
Gastrointestinal Tract Structure

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection

Lipidomics can be used to examine the lipid species involved with pathogenic conditions, such as viral associated inflammation. Discovered the latest research on Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Torsion Dystonia

Torsion dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by loss of control of voluntary movements appearing as sustained muscle contractions and/or abnormal postures. Here is the latest research.

Generating Insulin-Secreting Cells

Reprogramming cells or using induced pluripotent stem cells to generate insulin-secreting cells has significant therapeutic implications for diabetics. Here is the latest research on generation of insulin-secreting cells.

Central Pontine Myelinolysis

Central Pontine Myelinolysis is a neurologic disorder caused most frequently by rapid correction of hyponatremia and is characterized by demyelination that affects the central portion of the base of the pons. Here is the latest research on this disease.

Epigenome Editing

Epigenome editing is the directed modification of epigenetic marks on chromatin at specified loci. This tool has many applications in research as well as in the clinic. Find the latest research on epigenome editing here.