Patterns of diversification amongst tropical regions compared: a case study in Sapotaceae

Frontiers in Genetics
Kate E ArmstrongJames E Richardson

Abstract

Species diversity is unequally distributed across the globe, with the greatest concentration occurring in the tropics. Even within the tropics, there are significant differences in the numbers of taxa found in each continental region. Manilkara is a pantropical genus of trees in the Sapotaceae comprising c. 78 species. Its distribution allows for biogeographic investigation and testing of whether rates of diversification differ amongst tropical regions. The age and geographical origin of Manilkara are inferred to determine whether Gondwanan break-up, boreotropical migration or long distance dispersal have shaped its current disjunct distribution. Diversification rates through time are also analyzed to determine whether the timing and tempo of speciation on each continent coincides with geoclimatic events. Bayesian analyses of nuclear (ITS) and plastid (rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnK, and trnS-trnFM) sequences were used to reconstruct a species level phylogeny of Manilkara and related genera in the tribe Mimusopeae. Analyses of the nuclear data using a fossil-calibrated relaxed molecular clock indicate that Manilkara evolved 32-29 million years ago (Mya) in Africa. Lineages within the genus dispersed to the Neotropics 26-18 Mya and to A...Continue Reading

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