Recent studies show that cancer cells are sometimes able to evade the host immunity in the tumor microenvironment. Cancer cells can express high levels of immune inhibitory signaling proteins. One of the most critical checkpoint pathways in this system is a tumor-induced immune suppression (immune checkpoint) mediated by the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). PD-1 is highly expressed by activated T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and natural killer cells, whereas PD-L1 is expressed on several types of tumor cells. Many studies have shown that blocking the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 enhances the T-cell response and mediates antitumor activity. In this review, we highlight a brief overview of the molecular and biochemical events that are regulated by the PD-1 and PD-L1 interaction in various cancers.
The presence of high amounts of HBV-DNA in serum is associated with suppressed costimulatory effects of interleukin 12 on HBV-induced immune response
High viral burden in the presence of major HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell expansions: evidence for impaired CTL effector function
Impaired effector function of hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus infection
Cooperative B7-1/2 (CD80/CD86) and B7-DC costimulation of CD4+ T cells independent of the PD-1 receptor
PD-1 inhibits T-cell receptor induced phosphorylation of the ZAP70/CD3zeta signalosome and downstream signaling to PKCtheta
Costimulatory B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma patients: Indicator of tumor aggressiveness and potential therapeutic target
Clinical significance of programmed death-1 ligand-1 and programmed death-1 ligand-2 expression in human esophageal cancer
Immunohistochemical localization of programmed death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) in gastric carcinoma and its clinical significance
The B7-H1 (PD-L1) T lymphocyte-inhibitory molecule is expressed in breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma: correlation with important high-risk prognostic factors
PD-L1 (B7-H1) expression by urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and BCG-induced granulomata: associations with localized stage progression
Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes are prognostic factors of human ovarian cancer
Clinical significance and therapeutic potential of the programmed death-1 ligand/programmed death-1 pathway in human pancreatic cancer
Programmed death-1 ligand 1 interacts specifically with the B7-1 costimulatory molecule to inhibit T cell responses
The AP1-dependent secretion of galectin-1 by Reed Sternberg cells fosters immune privilege in classical Hodgkin lymphoma
Coregulation of CD8+ T cell exhaustion by multiple inhibitory receptors during chronic viral infection
Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces through STAT3 expression of immunosuppressive protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1)
MicroRNA-513 regulates B7-H1 translation and is involved in IFN-gamma-induced B7-H1 expression in cholangiocytes
Tumor cell expression of programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 is a prognostic factor for malignant melanoma
Phase I study of single-agent anti-programmed death-1 (MDX-1106) in refractory solid tumors: safety, clinical activity, pharmacodynamics, and immunologic correlates
Transcriptional analysis of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells shows that PD-1 inhibits T cell function by upregulating BATF
Transcription factor T-bet represses expression of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 and sustains virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses during chronic infection
Colocalization of inflammatory response with B7-h1 expression in human melanocytic lesions supports an adaptive resistance mechanism of immune escape
Selective effects of PD-1 on Akt and Ras pathways regulate molecular components of the cell cycle and inhibit T cell proliferation
Molecular pathways: next-generation immunotherapy--inhibiting programmed death-ligand 1 and programmed death-1
The activation of MAPK in melanoma cells resistant to BRAF inhibition promotes PD-L1 expression that is reversible by MEK and PI3K inhibition
A miR-570 binding site polymorphism in the B7-H1 gene is associated with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma
PD-1 increases PTEN phosphatase activity while decreasing PTEN protein stability by inhibiting casein kinase 2
PTEN loss increases PD-L1 protein expression and affects the correlation between PD-L1 expression and clinical parameters in colorectal cancer.
Blimp-1 represses CD8 T cell expression of PD-1 using a feed-forward transcriptional circuit during acute viral infection
RGMb is a novel binding partner for PD-L2 and its engagement with PD-L2 promotes respiratory tolerance
Metastasis is regulated via microRNA-200/ZEB1 axis control of tumour cell PD-L1 expression and intratumoral immunosuppression
EBV-driven LMP1 and IFN-γ up-regulate PD-L1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Implications for oncotargeted therapy
The microsatellite instable subset of colorectal cancer is a particularly good candidate for checkpoint blockade immunotherapy
The clinical relevance of the miR-197/CKS1B/STAT3-mediated PD-L1 network in chemoresistant non-small-cell lung cancer
Nivolumab versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma who progressed after anti-CTLA-4 treatment (CheckMate 037): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial
Overall Survival and Long-Term Safety of Nivolumab (Anti-Programmed Death 1 Antibody, BMS-936558, ONO-4538) in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Baseline neutrophils and derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: prognostic relevance in metastatic melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Associated with a Distinct Tumor Microenvironment Including Elevation of Inflammatory Signals and Multiple Immune Checkpoints in Lung Adenocarcinoma
Significance of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Immunohistochemical Expression in Colorectal Cancer
miR-424(322) reverses chemoresistance via T-cell immune response activation by blocking the PD-L1 immune checkpoint
PD-L1 expression in colorectal cancer is associated with microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation, medullary morphology and cytotoxic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
Current status and perspectives in translational biomarker research for PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade therapy
Acid-Activatable Versatile Micelleplexes for PD-L1 Blockade-Enhanced Cancer Photodynamic Immunotherapy
Tumor-Intrinsic PD-L1 Signals Regulate Cell Growth, Pathogenesis, and Autophagy in Ovarian Cancer and Melanoma
The JAK/STAT pathway is involved in the upregulation of PD-L1 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines
The immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1 is upregulated in EMT-activated human breast cancer cells by a mechanism involving ZEB-1 and miR-200
Combined Radiotherapy and Anti-PD-L1 Antibody Synergistically Enhances Antitumor Effect in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
PD-L1 promotes OCT4 and Nanog expression in breast cancer stem cells by sustaining PI3K/AKT pathway activation
Tumor Suppressor microRNAs Contribute to the Regulation of PD-L1 Expression in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
PD-1 and PD-L1 Checkpoint Signaling Inhibition for Cancer Immunotherapy: Mechanism, Combinations, and Clinical Outcome
A review on the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on cytokines of innate and adaptive immunity
Identification and Analysis of Dysfunctional Genes and Pathways in CD8+ T Cells of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Based on RNA Sequencing
Recent advances in the development of protein-protein interactions modulators: mechanisms and clinical trials
Epigenomic dysregulation-mediated alterations of key biological pathways and tumor immune evasion are hallmarks of gingivo-buccal oral cancer
Prognostic Impact of Adenosine Receptor 2 (A2aR) and Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) Expression in Colorectal Cancer
Prognostic Value of Soluble Programmed Cell Death Ligand-1 (sPD-L1) in Various Cancers: A Meta-analysis.
SNP-SNP Interaction in Genes Encoding PD-1/PD-L1 Axis as a Potential Risk Factor for Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Current and potential immunohistochemical biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic stratification of breast carcinoma.
N-glycosylation and ubiquitinylation of PD-L1 do not restrict interaction with BMS-202: A molecular modeling study.
Delicate Role of PD-L1/PD-1 Axis in Blood Vessel Inflammatory Diseases: Current Insight and Future Significance.
First-Line Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Landscape and Future Progress
Immunoregulation induced by autologous serum collected after acute exercise in obese men: a randomized cross-over trial.
Complete Response to the Sequential Treatment with Regorafenib Followed by PD-1 Inhibitor in a Sorafenib-Refractory Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patient
Efficacy and safety of anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 antibody therapy in treatment of advanced gastric cancer or gastroesophageal junction cancer: A meta-analysis
The recent advances of PD-1 and PD-L1 checkpoint signaling inhibition for breast cancer immunotherapy.
Diagnostic Value of Vaginal Microecology, Serum miR-18a, and PD-L1 for Identifying HPV-Positive Cervical Cancer.
Identification and Immunocorrelation of Prognosis-Related Genes Associated With Development of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.
PD-L1 expression with QR1 and E1L3N antibodies according to histological ovarian cancer subtype: A series of 232 cases.
Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-ligand 1 interaction inhibitors bearing a benzo[d]isothiazole scaffold.
Bioinformatic prediction of immunodominant regions in spike protein for early diagnosis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Discovery of 4-Arylindolines Containing a Thiazole Moiety as Potential Antitumor Agents Inhibiting the Programmed Cell Death-1/Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 Interaction.
An orally available PD-1/PD-L1 blocking peptide OPBP-1-loaded trimethyl chitosan hydrogel for cancer immunotherapy.
LPS stimulates gingival fibroblasts to express PD-L1 via the p38 pathway under periodontal inflammatory conditions.
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