Fetal cardiology is a rapidly evolving field. Imaging technology continues to advance as do approaches to in-utero interventions and care of the critically ill neonate, with even greater demand for improvement in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and arrhythmias. Reviewing the advances in prenatal diagnosis of CHD in such a rapidly developing field is a broad topic. Therefore, we have chosen to focus this review of recent literature on challenges in prenatal detection of CHD, challenges in prenatal counseling, advances in fetal arrhythmia diagnosis, and potential benefits to patients with CHD who are identified prenatally. As methods and tools to diagnose and manage CHD and arrhythmias in utero continue to improve, future generations will hopefully see a reduction in both prenatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Prenatal diagnosis can and should be used to optimize location and timing of delivery and postnatal interventions.
Extended fetal echocardiographic examination for detecting cardiac malformations in low risk pregnancies
Effect of detailed fetal echocardiography as part of routine prenatal ultrasonographic screening on detection of congenital heart disease
Effect of prenatal diagnosis of critical left heart obstruction on perinatal morbidity and mortality
Autoimmune-associated congenital heart block: demographics, mortality, morbidity and recurrence rates obtained from a national neonatal lupus registry
Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum: impact of fetal echocardiography on incidence at birth and postnatal outcome. UK and Eire Collaborative Study of Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum
Detection of transposition of the great arteries in fetuses reduces neonatal morbidity and mortality
Comparison of outcome when hypoplastic left heart syndrome and transposition of the great arteries are diagnosed prenatally versus when diagnosis of these two conditions is made only postnatally
Has fetal echocardiography improved the prognosis of congenital heart disease? Comparison of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with and without prenatal diagnosis
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease in the northern region of England: benefits of a training programme for obstetric ultrasonographers
Evaluation of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart diseases by ultrasound: experience from 20 European registries
Impact of prenatal diagnosis on survival and early neurologic morbidity in neonates with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Outcome of children with fetal, neonatal or childhood diagnosis of isolated congenital atrioventricular block. A single institution's experience of 30 years
The four-chamber view: four reasons why it seems to fail in screening for cardiac abnormalities and suggestions to improve detection rate
American Society of Echocardiography guidelines and standards for performance of the fetal echocardiogram
Outcome following, and impact of, prenatal identification of the candidates for the Norwood procedure
Differential diagnosis and management of the fetus and newborn with an irregular or abnormal heart rate
Transplacental fetal treatment improves the outcome of prenatally diagnosed complete atrioventricular block without structural heart disease
Trends in prenatal diagnosis, pregnancy termination, and perinatal mortality of newborns with congenital heart disease in France, 1983-2000: a population-based evaluation
Clinical features, management, and outcome of children with fetal and postnatal diagnoses of isomerism syndromes
Delayed diagnosis of congenital heart disease worsens preoperative condition and outcome of surgery in neonates
Prenatal detection of heart defects in a non-selected population of 30,149 fetuses--detection rates and outcome
The examiner's ultrasound experience has a significant impact on the detection rate of congenital heart defects at the second-trimester fetal examination
Prenatal screening for congenital heart disease with four-chamber and outflow-tract views: a multicenter study
Immediate and long-term outcomes in children with prenatal diagnosis of selected isolated congenital heart defects
Utility of cardiac monitoring in fetuses at risk for congenital heart block: the PR Interval and Dexamethasone Evaluation (PRIDE) prospective study
Influence of ultrasonographers training on prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart diseases: a 12-year population-based study
Impact of prenatal diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries on obstetric and early postnatal management
Comment on Spallicci et al. "Use of hyaluronidase for cervical ripening: a randomized trial" [Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 130 (1) (2007) 46-50
Effectiveness of prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects in South Australia: a population analysis 1999-2003
Impact of antenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome on the clinical presentation and surgical outcomes: the Australian experience
Comparative transcriptome analysis of atrial septal defect identifies dysregulated genes during heart septum morphogenesis
Parent's experiences of counselling and their need for support following a prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease--a qualitative study in a Swedish context
Effectiveness of medical self-experience counseling in pregnant women after echocardiographic detection of a suspected fetal heart anomaly: A longitudinal study
Current Interventional and Surgical Management of Congenital Heart Disease: Specific Focus on Valvular Disease and Cardiac Arrhythmias
Prenatally Diagnosed Congenital Ventricular Outpouchings: An Institutional Experience and Review of the Literature
SNP Array as a Tool for Prenatal Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease Screened by Echocardiography: Implications for Precision Assessment of Fetal Prognosis.
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