PMID: 59153Jul 10, 1976

Peptide transmitters: a unifying hypothesis for euphoria, respiration, sleep, and the action of lithium

R Byck


Actions of morphine include analgesia, sleep, euphoria, and depression of respiration. Transmitter or modulator substances in the brain that have actions similar to morphine may control these functions in man. This hypothesis proposes that enkephalin is a controlling neurotransmitter and its binding to opiate receptors determines mood state as well as influencing respiratory and sleep patterns. Lithium may act through modification of the opiate receptor affinity for an endogenous morphine-like substance. The theory predicts blocking action of naloxone in mania and in most drug-induced euphorias. It implies a new chemical pathophysiological basis for the phenomenology of mental illness.


Aug 15, 1992·Biological Psychiatry·A F Martín del CampoA Grossman
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Related Concepts

Euphoric Mood
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Receptors, Drug
Sleep, Slow-Wave

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