Peptidoglycan layer and disruption processes in Bacillus subtilis cells visualized using quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy

Microscopy
Isil TulumMakoto Miyata

Abstract

Peptidoglycan, which is the main component of the bacterial cell wall, is a heterogeneous polymer of glycan strands cross-linked with short peptides and is synthesized in cooperation with the cell division cycle. Although it plays a critical role in bacterial survival, its architecture is not well understood. Herein, we visualized the architecture of the peptidoglycan surface in Bacillus subtilis at the nanometer resolution, using quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy (EM). Filamentous structures were observed on the entire surface of the cell, where filaments about 11 nm wide formed concentric circles on cell poles, filaments about 13 nm wide formed a circumferential mesh-like structure on the cylindrical part and a 'piecrust' structure was observed at the boundary. When growing cells were treated with lysozyme, the entire cell mass migrated to one side and came out from the cell envelope. Fluorescence labeling showed that lysozyme preferentially bound to a cell pole and cell division site, where the peptidoglycan synthesis was not complete. Ruffling of surface structures was observed during EM. When cells were treated with penicillin, the cell mass came out from a cleft around the cell division site. Outward curvature o...Continue Reading

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Citations

Jan 21, 2020·Genes to Cells : Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms·Makoto MiyataKen-Ichi Wakabayashi
Aug 18, 2020·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Kotaro TakakiYosuke Tashiro
Feb 26, 2021·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Sara B Hernández, Felipe Cava

Related Concepts

Bacillus subtilis
Cell Cycle
Cell Division
Cell Wall
Electron Microscopy
Penicillin G
Peptides
Peptidoglycan
Polymers
Protoplasts

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Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (also called murein), which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids. Here is the latest research on bacterial cell wall structures.

Bacterial Cell Wall Structure

Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (also called murein), which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids. Here is the latest research on bacterial cell wall structures.